Coanalgesics For Chronic Pain

Coanalgesics are a varied group of medications that can provide additive pain relief when they are added to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids (American Pain Society APS , 2008). They can have independent analgesic activity for some painful complaints, and they can counteract select adverse effects of analgesics (APS, 2008). This group of medications was developed to treat a wide variety of conditions, such as seizures or muscle spasms, and was originally intended for...

Neuropathic Pain Scale

Thie NPS (Exhibit 15.1) was developed as a result of two research protocols in which pain descriptors were assessed for four different pain conditions PHN, CRPS, PDN, and traumatic peripheral nerve injury. A second, more diverse group of patients being treated with either lidocaine or phentolamine infusions used the scale to rate their pain. Interestingly, the second protocol outcome identified a positive response for pain that was described as unpleasant or deep. This finding led researchers...

Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire2 SFMPQ2

In the original McGill Pain Questionnaire used to assess pain in chronic pain patients, there is a list of 15 verbal descriptors rated on a 4-point scale, a visual analog scale for pain intensity, and verbal rating scales. The original scale established reliability and validity for measuring pain in chronic pain conditions. Although some chronic pain conditions are neuropathic, a tool that can distinguish both the pain of a chronic no-ciceptive condition and neuropathic pain is considered...