Adriaensen, H., Vissers, K., Noorduin, H., & Meert, T. (2003). Opioid tolerance and dependence: an inevitable consequence of chronic treatment? Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica, 54, 37—47.
American Pain Foundation. (2005). Pain facts. An overview of American pain surveys. Retrieved from http://www.painfoundation.org/page .asp?file=Library/PainSurveys.htm
American Pain Society. (2000). Pain assessment and treatment in the managed care environment. A position statement from the American Pain Society. Glenview, IL: Author.
American Pain Society. (2003). Principles of analgesic use in the treatment of acute pain and cancer pain (5 th ed.). Glenview, IL: Author.
American Pain Society. (2005). APS glossary of pain terminology. Retrieved from http://www.ampainsoc.org/links/pain_glossary.htm
American Pain Society. (2007). A joint statement from the 21 Health Organizations and the Drug Enforcement Administration. Promoting pain relief and preventing abuse of pain medications: A critical balancing act. Retrieved from http://www.ampainsoc.org/advocacy/pdf/ consensus_1.pdf
Berry, P. H., Katz, J. A., Covington, E. C., Miaskowski, C., Dahl, J. L., & American Pain Society. (2006). Pain: Current understanding of assessment, management, and treatments. Reston, VA: National Pharmaceutical Council.
D'Arcy, Y. M. (2007). Pain management: Evidence-based tools and techniques for nursing professionals. Marblehead, MA: HCPro.
D'Arcy, Y., & McCarberg, B. (2005). Field guide to pain: Developing a plan of care. Nurse Practitioner, 30, 60—62.
D'Arcy, Y., & McCarberg, B. (2006). Physician-nurse practitioner collaboration. Pain Medicine News, 4, 1, 10.
Joranson, D. E. (1995). Intractable pain treatment laws and regulations. American Pain Society Bulletin, 5, 1-3, 15-17.
Joranson, D. E., Ryan, K. M., Gilson, A. M., & Dahl, J. L. (2000). Trends in medical use and abuse of opioid analgesics. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 1710—1714. Lazarus, J. B., & Downing, B. (2003). Monitoring and investigating certified registered nurse practitioners in pain management. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: A Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 31, 101-118. United States Drug Enforcement Administration. (2001). Prescription pain medications: Frequently asked questions and answers for health care professionals, and law enforcement personnel. Retrieved from http://www .aapsonline.org/painman/deafaq.pdf USA Today, & Sternberg, S. (2005). Chronic pain: The enemy within. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2005-05-08-chronic-pain-cover_x.htm
Was this article helpful?