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© R. Melzack 1984

The short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Descriptors 1-11 represent the sensory dimension of pain experience and 12-15 represent the affective dimension. Each descriptor is ranked on an intensity scale of 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe. The Present Pain Intensity (PPI) of the standard long-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (LF-MPQ) and the visual analog scale (VAS) are also included to provide overall intensity scores.

Source: Reprinted with permission from R. Melzack. © R. Melzack, 1984.

Thie McGill Pain Questionnaire was designed to be used for pain that requires a multidimensional approach to measure pain in patients with complex conditions, such as chronic pain. Some of the areas that the pain scale has been used include the following:

■ Experimentally induced pain

■ Postprocedural pain

■ A number of medical—surgical conditions

Thie tool contains a VAS, a present pain intensity (PPI) scale, and set verbal descriptors used to capture the sensory aspect of the pain experience. The tool has been widely used in various settings and found to be reliable and valid and has been translated into a number of foreign languages (McDonald & Weiskopf, 2001; Melzack, 1975, 1987).

Limitations include:

■ Difficulty scoring and weighting the verbal descriptor section.

■ Difficulty translating the verbal descriptor section into words that indicate syndromes.

Strengths include:

■ High level of reliability and validity. Brief Pain Inventory

Originally, the BPI was used with oncology patients to assess long-term oncology pain. With further use, it has been found to be reliable and valid for assessing pain in patients with chronic pain (Daut et al., 1983) and has been translated into various languages. It has a simple, easy-to-use format that can be used as an interview or as a self-report that is completed by the patient. The BPI includes the following:

■ A pain intensity scale

■ A body diagram to locate the pain

■ A functional assessment

■ Questions about the efficacy of pain medications

Brief Pain Inventory

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