■ Intra-articular injections, with steroids or injectable solutions for joint lubricating, such as sodium hyaluronate or hylan G-F 20
■ Lidocaine patch over painful area
■ Topical analgesic balms, such as capsaicin
■ Physical therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units, iontophoresis, pool-based physical therapy programs (balineo-therapy), assistive devices such as a cane
■ Arthritis self-management program
■ Joint replacements (American Geriatrics Society, 2002; APS, 2002, 2005)
The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) Guidelines, 2007 and 2008, also provide some direction for selecting appropriate medication and interventional options. The focus of these guidelines was to:
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