Future directions

Once the diagnostic criteria have been clarified, larger multicentered long-term RCT need to be done. Education of primary and secondary care providers is essential if this group of patients is to be recognized early and managed appropriately to prevent chronicity.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is often used after all other types of interventions have failed. This is in part related to the patients' expectations, which are usually to find relief of pain and not better ways of coping with it [22]. Williams [22] argues that this may not be the correct approach and that CBT should be offered earlier as it aims to provide maximum freedom from the negative impact of pain by changing the individual's relationship to it. It needs to be offered to patients with orofacial pain especially if they have risk factors.

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