General statements

Approximately half of the world's population has experienced a monthly recurrence of abdominal pain associated with the menstrual cycle. The degree of distress and disruption of activities of daily living produced by this cycling phenomenon varies widely in the population. Menstrual cramps in the perimenstrual period and Mittelschmerz (pain at the time of ovulation) are viewed as "normal" but when they become noncyclic or when they lead to a severe disruption of activity, then investigations and interventions may be performed. Gynecologic pains can be divided into two sites of pain localization: the abdomen/pelvis and the perineum (vulvo-dynia). The latter disorder is discussed in a separate chapter of this text along with nonspecific pelvic pains of several types. The types of pain discussed here will be attributed to specific intra-abdominal female reproductive organs. Brief mention will also be made of orchialgia, a male correlate to ovarian pain.

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Natural Pain Management

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