Professional Makeup For Beginners

Make-up For Beginners

Make-Up for Beginners: Learn Doing Make-Up like a Pro is an online course created by Lana Vallo. It helps individuals do their makeups in a professional way such that they are durable, last for long and enhance beauty. It transforms you into an expert that other people will turn to for help over and over. Subscribing to this program guarantees you more beautiful than ever before. The course was designed following an increasing demand for brand-neutral, timely, and professional advice on the skill of makeup. Enrolling to the course does not require any special tool or requirements. Nonetheless, once you are done with the sessions you will require professional makeup brushes and other necessary tools including a complete makeup kit. It will also be necessary that you find a model for putting into practice all the strategies covered by the video tutorials, especially if you aspire to do makeups for other individuals. This is a fantastic program with thousands of positive reviews. It will significantly improve your skills and make you an expert in the makeup industry. Payment is processed via ClickBank and the product has a 60-day warranty. Read more here...

Makeup For Beginners Summary


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Future Considerations

Another general idea to emerge is the labile nature of receptors in response to binding. In light of thermodynamic concepts relating to spontaneous formation of receptor conformations, binding should be considered an active, rather than a passive, phenomenon that is, binding of any ligand to the receptor will change the overall makeup of the conformational ensemble (i.e., according to Eq. 1.23- . Simulations of the effects of binding to a random collection of protein conformations show a correlation between affinity and efficacy, the latter being defined as the ability to change the conformation of the receptor It can be seen that no change in the fraction of receptors different from the R state will occur in the presence of the ligand only if the affinities of the ligand for every state is the same (equal to K, i.e., to n 1). If the ligand has differential affinity for any of the states Ri , then it will alter the fractional makeup of the ensemble and produce different relative...

How Might I Be Exposed To Boron

You can be exposed to boron in food (mainly vegetables and fruits), water, air, and consumer products. Infants, in particular, can be exposed to borates in products used to control cockroaches. Since boron is taken up from the soil by plants, it can enter the food chain. Although boron has been found in animal tissue, it does not accumulate and it is not likely that eating fish or meat will increase the boron levels in your body. Boron has been found in groundwater at very low levels. Background levels of boron up to 5 parts of boron in 1 million parts (ppm) of surface water have been reported. However, in dry areas where there are natural boron-rich deposits, boron concentrations can be as high as 360 ppm. No data were found on the occurrence of boron compounds in surface or groundwater. While current drinking water surveys do not report any levels of boron, it has been found in tap water in the past. Levels reported in drinking water were less than 1-3 ppm. There is potential for...

Managing Chronic Pain Using Nonopioid Medications

There are genetic factors that influence the effectiveness of pain medications in a specific individual, so when patients say the only medication that works for them is morphine, it may really be a reflection of how their genetic makeup has reacted to the medications that were tried in the past. Patients should never be penalized or labeled for providing information on how specific medications have worked for them in the past.

Drug Actions on the Skins Glands

Astringents also decimate the population of surface microbes, explaining their presence in deodorants. The distinction between antiperspirants and deodorants is legally significant, as antiperspirants alter a body function and are regulated as drugs, while deodorants are classified as cosmetics. Thus, the antiperspirant action has to be scientifically proven to before it can be claimed for a product. Nevertheless, given the similarities in the compositions of deodorants and antiperspirants, they are likely functionally equivalent. Since eccrine glands are mediated by cholinergic nerves, sweating also can be shut off by anticholinergic drugs administered systematically

Biological Properties Medicinal Applications Of Laminaria

As discussed under the chemical properties, a dietary supplement, Laminaria, is rich in several constituents that can be very beneficial to the health. Its high iodine content proves to be a great natural boon for the thyroid gland to prevent goiter. Apart from its high calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and trace minerals such as manganese, copper, selenium, and zinc, it provides vitamins B1 and B2 as well as chromium which is instrumental in blood sugar control and helps to keep diabetes in check. In Europe, Laminaria is basically harvested for a main source of alginate in the food industry, an emulsifying and binding agent used in the production of many foods like ice cream, toothpaste, cereals, and cosmetics as well as in paints and films (

Genetics in Pharmacology

By dint of their background and interests, pharmacologists would look for a defect in a drug's pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics to explain therapeutic failure or toxicity, but scientists of other biomedical disciplines might interpret the same observations differently. Geneticists, who are more likely to focus on characteristics that differentiate individuals from each other rather than concentrating on their similarities, might view a drug as an exogenous substance on which individuals could exert selective effects. They might consider an unusual drug response as a reflection of a difference in the genetic makeup of normal and unusual responders, and would come up with a different set of testable hypotheses to identify the cause of the difference.

The Fine Structure Of Genetic Profiling Human Drug Response

But classical genetic techniques alone do not make it possible to identify the molecular basis of a trait. Their capacity is limited because the existence of allelic variants of genes can be inferred only one gene at a time from information they provide, whereas recombinant DNA techniques and allied technologies enable variant forms of many genes to be described directly. From molecular studies in individuals and in populations, a strong case can be made for large-scale, structural and functional analysis of genetic polymorphisms and genetic diversity aimed at producing a complete catalog of human diversity. By identifying the functions of the natural and variant forms of proteins encoded in the human genome, it is not unreasonable to expect that associations between the genetic makeup of individuals and individual susceptibility to human disease will be discovered. Similarly, by establishing associations with responsiveness to specific therapeutic agents, foods, and other exogenous...

Aspects of Physical and Chemical Stability

A more commonly encountered change in formulations is the evaporative loss of water or other volatile phases from a preparation while it is in storage. This can occur as a result of inappropriate packaging or a flaw made in packaging. Some plastic collapsible tubes allow diffusive loss of volatile substances through the container walls. One will find this phenomenon occasionally in cosmetics, which are hurried to the marketplace without adequate stability assessment, but rarely in ethical pharmaceuticals, which are time tested. However, a bad seal may occur in any tube or jar irrespective of its contents, with eventual loss of volatile ingredients around the cap or through the crimp. Such evaporative losses cause a formulation to stiffen and become puffy and its application characteristics change noticeably. There is corresponding weight loss. Under this

Skin SensitivityA Specific Toxicological Concern

Allergic incidents are widespread and, from an allergy standpoint, it is useful that the ingredients of dermatological medications are listed on the package or in the package insert. This allows the pharmacist to screen products for their suitability for individuals with known sensitivities. OTC medications and cosmetics also contain a qualitative listing of their ingredients. The pharmacist thus has access to critical information he or she needs to safeguard patients relative to their known hypersensitivity.

Historical Background

The code of Hammurabi is mentioned only to place that period in history when reference to eye medicines or poultices was beginning to appear. The Sumerians, in southern Mesopotamia, are considered to be the first to record their history, beginning about 3100 BC The Egyptians used copper compounds, such as malachite and chrysocalla, as green eye makeup with, no doubt, some beneficial effect against infection, owing to the antibacterial properties of copper (8, pp. 112-114). The standard wound salve of the Smith Papyrus (approximately 1700 BC) grease, honey, and lint probably served as one of the earliest ointments or ointment bases for the treatment of eye disease or wounds. The Greeks expanded on this basic salve to arrive at a typical enaimon (enheme), a drug for fresh wounds, which might have contained copper, lead, or alum, in addition to myrrh and frankincense (8, p. 154). The use of the aromatic substance myrrh in the form of sticks, blocks, or probes has been documented and...

The relationship between affinity and efficacy

There are numerous lines of evidence to indicate that proteins do not possess one single tertiary conformation, but rather exist in an ensemble of micro-conformations (Hilser and Freire 1996, 1997 Hilser et al. 1998 Woodward et al. 1982 Woodward 1993 Karplus and Petsk 1990). The driving force to change these micro-conformational states is thermal energy (Hilser et al. 1997 Hvidt and Nielsen 1966 Bai et al. 1993, 1995). Thus, an ensemble of receptor conformations exists because of a characteristic low Gibbs free energy a change in the free energy will herald a change in the makeup of the conformational ensemble. The equation for defining the change in the free energy of a given receptor state i, in comparison It can be seen from equation (2) that if the affinity of the ligand for any state i (Ka,i) differs from the reference state (Ka,0) then A Gj AG0. Under these circumstances there will be a change in free energy of the ensemble and this would cause the formation of a new ensemble...

Preclinical Efforts Toward Acetate Supplementation Therapy

In view of the evidence presented above that brain acetate levels and myelin lipid synthesis are reduced in CD mice, correcting the acetate deficit by acetate supplementation would appear to be an obvious therapeutic approach for CD. In our preclinical efforts toward such a therapy for CD, we are currently examining glyceryl triacetate (Triacetin) and calcium acetate as potential exogenous acetate sources for delivering acetate to the brain. Glyceryl triacetate is a non-toxic glyceryl tri-ester of acetic acid that is widely used as a solvent and plasticizer in perfumery, tanning, dyes, as a food additive, a gelatinizing agent in cosmetics and is also used in external medicine. Biochemical studies on glyceryl triacetate have shown that glyceryl triacetate is hydrolyzed in vivo by all tissues of mammals including the gastrointestinal tract.53 Calcium acetate is currently approved as a drug for the treatment of kidney disease to control high blood phosphate levels.54 In preliminary...

Potential Applications of Biosurfactant

Biosurfactants are becoming important biotechnology products for industrial and medical applications due to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, relative ease of preparation and widespread applicability.63-65 Biosurfactants also exhibit natural physiological roles in increasing bioavailability ofhydrophobic molecules and can complex with heavy metals, promoting improved degradation of chemical contaminants.66 They can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting and foaming agents, functional food ingredients and as detergents in petroleum, petrochemicals, environmental management, agrochemicals, foods and beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, commercial laundry detergents and in the mining and metallurgical industries.67-71

The Case For The Ideal In Vitro Artificial Membrane Permeability Model

Proulx 571 reviewed the published lipid compositions of brush-border membranes (BBM) isolated from epithelial cells from pig, rabbit, mouse, and rat small intestines. Table 7.1 shows the lipid makeup for the rat, averaged from five reported studies 571 . Kramer et al. 572,573 reported Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and BBB lipid composition profiles, listed in Table 7.1, for comparative purposes. Also shown are typical compositions of soy- and egg-derived lecithin extracts. Sugano's composition 561,562 is an attempt to mimic the BBLM. Table 7.1 lists the anionic-to-zwitterionic lipid weight ratios. On a molar basis, cholesterol accounts for about 50 of the total lipid content (37 on a weight basis) in the BBLM. The cholesterol content in BBLM is higher than that found in kidney epithelial (MDCK) and cultured brain endothelial cells (Table 7.1). (Slightly different BBLM lipid composition was reported by Alcorn et al. 433 .) The outer (luminal) leaflet of the BBLM is rich in...

Antivascular Effects Of Microtubuletargeted Agents

The tumor vasculature is an attractive target for tumor therapy.74 The main approach to inhibiting vascular function in tumors is antiangiogenic therapy, which will be discussed in Chapters 9 and 10. However, it has been shown more recently that some compounds, especially microtubule-targeted agents, have the ability to shut down the existing vasculature at tumors because of depolymerization of the microtubule cytoskeleton at the endothelial cells vascular-targeting agents (VTAs) .75,76 Furthermore, the compounds of this group that are under development seem to damage the tumor vasculature with preference to normal tissues. This selectivity for the microvessels of tumors may reflect, in part, variability in the cytoskeletal makeup of rapidly proliferating endothelial cells inherent to microvessels feeding tumor cells versus the normally proliferating endothelial cells of microvessels serving healthy cells.77

Photosensitization Mechanisms

Photochemistry in biological systems has been receiving great attention in the last years for several practical applications, such as energy storage, waste degradation, food preservation and photosensitization reactions. As regards the latter aspects we must remember that sun radiation (UVA, UVB, Vis) is able to penetrate the cutaneous layer, even in relatively deep regions, to reach the blood flux (a suitable carrier of xenobiotic agents). The presence of a xenobiotic able to absorb the incident radiation can start noxious reactions. Among the potential photosensitizers we can find food preservatives, cosmetics, dyes and drugs. These latter can undergo photoreactions, which either may be useful for therapeutic applications or

Discovery Of New Medicines

With notable exceptions, such as the discovery of Insulin by Banting and Best in 1922 (1), early discovery of medicines was more due to random screening than scientific reasoning. However, as advances occurred in physiology and as biochemistry developed, better strategies and methodologies for medicinal chemists arose. The development of receptor science was followed by advances in protein and peptide chemistry. These were assisted greatly by advances in NMR and X-ray crystallography. As these advances occurred, so the drug discovery process became more selective and less dependent on chance. The last decade has seen the advancement of rational screening of molecules based on 3D databases and automated molecule design. Molecular biology has introduced the ability to clone receptors, to produce mononclonal antibodies and recombinant products, to study transgenic animals, to select gene therapies and to develop antisense oligonucleotides. These advances have brought us to the possible...

Other Environmental Media

Boron compounds are present in several consumer products. Sodium borate and boric acid are widely used in cosmetics. Over 600 cosmetic products, including makeup, skin and hair care preparations, and shaving creams, contain these compounds at concentrations of up to 5 (Beyer et al. 1983). These compounds have also been used in insecticide powders for roach control, in medicines applied to the skin at concentrations up to 5 (Beyer et al. 1983) and in some laundry products (Butterwick et al. 1989 Stokinger 1981 Waggott 1969).

General Population And Occupational Exposure

Human exposure to borates may occur through ingestion of food and water or insecticides used to control cockroaches, inhalation of boron-containing powders or dusts, or absorption of boron from cosmetics or medical preparations through mucous membranes or damaged skin. The most appreciable boron exposure to the general population is likely to be ingestion of food and to a lesser extent in water. Estimates of average daily boron ingestion by humans range from 10 to 25 mg (Beyer et al. 1983 Waggott 1969). boron-containing dusts in workplace air (Table 7-1) may, at times, be exceeded. Other industries include manufacture of fiberglass and other glass products, cleaning and laundry products, fertilizers, pesticides, and cosmetics (U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation 1991 Stokinger 1981). Median normal values of boron in human blood (9.76 mg 100 g) and urine samples from these workers (720 mg boron L) were reported (Stokinger 1981). Boron was not detected in a national survey of human...

Populations With Potentially High Exposures

The populations living in areas of California and other western states with boron-rich geological deposits have potentially high exposure to boron from drinking water and locally grown foods (Butterwick et al. 1989). Individuals using boron-containing cosmetics or medicines extensively, especially on damaged skin, may be exposed to higher-than-normal levels of boron (Beyer et al. 1983). Infants may be at risk in homes where boric acid containing roach powder on floor parameters is used to control cockroaches.

Industrial Applications

Other industries have also utilized non-aqueous conditions for their biotechno-logical application, and this literature base can be applied to pharmaceutical applications. For example, industrial enzymes have been used for detergents, textiles, food production, dairy, animal feed, leather, bioremediation, paper, cosmetics and diagnostics (Matsuura et al., 1993 Dai and Klibanov, 1999 Laboret and Perraud, 1999 Stevenson, 1999 Loughlan and Hawkes, 2000 Gonzales-Navarro et al., 2001 Schmid et al., 2001 Secundo and Carrea, 2003 Kuntz et al., 2003 Sardessai and Bhosle, 2003 Gupta et al., 2004 Houde et al., 2004 Sardessai and Bhosle, 2004 Spreti et al., 2004).

Environmental Oestrogens

This term is used to describe man-made chemicals and phytoestrogens which are present in the environment and have oestrogenic activity in vitro and or in vivo. A large number of compounds within several major groups of chemicals have been identified as being weakly oestrogenic by in vitro screening methods however, very few have been adequately tested in vivo (see Table 2 below). Many of these compounds are widespread and persistent in the environment. They are likely to be present in the food chain, drinking water, plastics, household products, cosmetics, toiletries and food packaging, though which is the most important route of human exposure is unclear. However, exposure to the weak oestrogenic activity of man-made chemicals might not be the real cause for concern. It can be argued that exposure to industrial chemicals or agricultural products with oestrogenic activity is likely to be minimal in comparison to our dietary intake of naturally occurring plant-derived oestrogens, the...

From Genome to Clinic Correlation between Genes Diseases and Biopharmaceuticals

Targets for the development of modern biopharmaceuticals. Subsequently, this nice introduction to pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics is followed by a chapter from Dr. Shiew-Mei Huang, Deputy Office Director for Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Her expertise in this field stems from her entire academic and industrial career before joining the FDA, she was Director of the Pre-Clin-ical ADME Group at DuPont Merck Pharmaceutical Company. Her colleague, Professor Lawrence J. Lesko, chairs the FDA Pharmacogenetics Working Group and currently serves as a Regent of the American College of Clinical Pharmacology. Both focus on the different genetic setups of individual patients and how this is reflected in their respective response (or nonre-sponse) to certain biopharmaceuticals. The current state of knowledge with regard to DNA-based differences e.g., single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in pharmacoki-netics and pharmacodynamics of...

Biomimetic Amphiphiles

Surfactants are among the most versatile products of the chemical industry appearing in essential biological systems and industrial processes.1 Our food, cosmetics, medicines, house-hold items, the drilling mud used in prospecting for petroleum and the floatation agents used in benefication of ores, contain a wide range of surfactants. Surfactant is an abbreviation for surface active agent, which literally means a species, which is active at the interface. In other words, a surfactant is characterized by its tendency to adsorb at the surfaces and interfaces. The term interface denotes a boundary between any two immiscible phases while, the term surface indicates that one of the phases is a gas, generally air.2,3 The driving force for surfactant adsorption is the lowering of free energy of the phase boundary.

Panax ginseng c A

Asian ginseng is one of the most highly regarded of energizing tonics in the entire Chinese materia medica. It has also become one of the most popularly used of all herbal tonifiers in the West and has been incorprated into myriad products from traditional foods to dietary supplements, textiles, and cosmetics. There are various forms and qualities of Asian ginseng, including wild (shan shen), cultivated (yuan shen), woods grown (linxia shen), processed red without sugar (hong shen or hong ren shen see separate entry), and processed red with sugar (tang ren shen), to name only a few. An initial review of these different types suggests that they are microscopically almost identical. Steaming, however, turns starch granules into gelatinous masses that give the parenchyma cells of red ginseng a swollen appearance. There are also different species of Panax (e.g., P. ginseng, P. quincefolius, and P. pseudo ginseng). These are typically not confused in trade, but a microscopic...

Molecular Genetics of Biosurfactant Synthesis in Microorganisms

Polysaccharide Synthesis Locus Synthesis

Biosurfactant (BS) bioemulsifier (BE) produced by varied microorganisms exemplify immense structural functional diversity and consequently signify the involvement of particular molecular machinery in their biosynthesis. The present chapter aims to compile information on molecular genetics of BS BE production in microorganisms. Polymer synthesis in Acinetobacter species is controlled by an intricate operon system and its further excretion being controlled by enzymes. Quorum sensing system (QSS) plays a fundamental role in rhamnolipid and surfactin synthesis. Depending upon the cell density, signal molecules (autoinducers) of regulatory pathways accomplish the biosynthesis of BS. The regulation of serrawettin production by Serratia is believed to be through non ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) encoded by QSS located on mobile transposon. This regulation is under positive as well as negative control of QSS operon products. In case of yeast and...

Pharmaceutical Elegance

Evaluation of the cosmetic elegance of topical preparations can be accomplished scientifically, but it is questionable whether physical experiments on system rheology and the like offer appreciable advantage over the subjective evaluations of the pharmacist, the formulator, or other experienced people. Persons who use cosmetics are particularly adept and helpful as evaluators.

Unique Physicochemical Systems Used Topically

As one scans the products at the drug counter, one finds an enormous variety of formulation types available for topical therapy or for cosmetic purposes. Solutions are commonly found. They come in packages that allow them to be rubbed on, sprayed on by aerosol and atomizers, painted on, rolled on, swabbed on by premoistened pledgets, and dabbed on from applicators. Assorted medicated soaps are available for a range of purposes. Emulsions for the skin are found in the form of shampoos and as medicated lotions. Powders to soothe and lubricate are placed in sprinkling cans, while others containing drugs are formulated into aerosols to be sprayed on the skin. There are numerous fluid suspensions to be used as makeup or for therapeutic purposes. Clear and opaque gels are also to be found in both cosmetic and therapeutic spheres as are assorted semisolid creams, ointments, and pastes. The physical natures of these latter systems range from soft semisolids that are squeezed out of tubes to...

Chemical Properties

Disc Training Activities

Unlike plants where the main storage compound is starch, chromists store laminarin (hence the name Laminaria) in the form of chains of mannitol and glucose, and the organelles used for the storage are pyrenoids. Apart from the laminarin in pyrenoids, the cell walls of chromists contain algin, a gum used as a thickener and emulsifier in the food and cosmetics industry ( East Asian cultures have traditionally exploited kelp for food and medicinal values. On an average, 100 g of the dry kelp contains 17.1-32.0 g alginic acid, 8.46-28.48 g mannitol, 5.97-18.99 g crude protein, and 19.35-45.29 g ash, including 0.13-0.69 g iodine and 4.35-12.65 g potassium, yielding 262 kcal. Chemical analysis of the kelp shows that it may be regarded

Applications of Hemicelluloses

Biopolymer films are excellent vehicles for incorporating a wide variety of additives, such as antioxidants, antifungal agents, antimicrobials, drugs, colours and other nutrients. Thus xyloglucan can be used to obtain a transparent film for various applications, especially in controlled-release drugs and cosmetics. The xyloglucan was extracted from tamarind seed powder by hot water extraction method. Streptomycin was encapsulated in a composite xyloglucan chitosan (1 1) film and then the controlled-release efficiency of the film was studied, which will be a useful parameter for its usage in capsules, patches and other aroma and cosmetic products. The results showed that controlled release of the drug occurs at pH 7.4 and exhibits a small burst release in the initial stage and then a slow constant release. This initial burst effect could be attributed to the diffusion of the drug caused by rapid swelling of the membrane and also the faster release of the drug adsorbed towards the...

Hamamelis virginiana L

Witch hazel bark has been used for centuries as an astringent tonifer. It has been a common ingredient in cosmetics and facial washes and has not been associated with adulterations. Leaves as well as bark have been traded and are readily distiguishable from each other. When viewed microscopically, faint tangential striations in the bark can be observed (Youngken 1930).

Creation And Maintenance Of Cell Lines Stably And Heterologously Expressing nAChR Of Defined Subunit Composition

Lines are those derived from a single cell. Flow cytometric studies show that chromosomal makeup and numbers can vary wildly as a tumor-derived cell line becomes established. Continuous cell lines usually arise when a particular chromosomal makeup stabilizes growth and cell phenotype. However, recombinations still can occur to give cells a competitive growth advantage but could result in loss of genes or gene expression of interest. The policy is not to carry any cell line for more than 6 months or about 30 passages (realizing that cells in stocks are no less than 5 passages and may be as far as 20 passages removed from the true first passage). Even established cell lines, such as PC12 or SH-SY5Y, sporadically show loss of nAChR when carried for more than 20 passages from the stocks. Engineered cell lines are considered to be stably transfected if they have been carried for at least 24 passages without evidence of loss of transfected gene expression. However, this does not ensure that...

Ocular Toxicity and Irritation

Various governmental agencies have published guidelines for ocular irritancy studies (93-95). These guidelines are directed toward ophthalmic formulations, chemicals, cosmetics, extractables from ophthalmic containers, and other materials that may intentionally or accidentally contact the eye during use. It is the manufacturer's responsibility to determine those studies specifically appropriate for testing the safety of the ophthalmic formulation, yet abiding by governmental requirements and guidelines regarding ophthalmic preparations and excipients as well as biocompatibility of the packaging.

What Is Boron

Borates are used mostly in the production of glass. They are also used in fire retardants, leather tanning and finishing industries, cosmetics, photographic materials, with certain metals, and for high-energy fuel. Pesticides for cockroach control and wood preservatives also contain borates.


Standards designated as USP Reference Standards (USP RS) are, with a few exceptions, required for use in USP-NF monographs or General Chapters. The exceptions include current lots of USP and NF Reference Standards for which uses are no longer specified in the current USP or NF but for which sufficient demand remains (upon depletion of the current lots, future lots will be designated as Authentic Substances), Reference Standards specified in monographs developed by USP that are not intended for publication in the USP-NF, Reference Standards specified in the current edition of the Food Chemicals Codex (labeled with an additional designation FCC), and Fluoride Dentifrices (evaluated and distributed by agreement with the FDA and the Cosmetics, Toiletries, and Fragrances Association). A USP Reference Standard required in a monograph or General Chapter proposed in Pharmacopeial Forum may be released in advance of the official date of the proposed PF revision.

Surface Effects

Of the many possible dermatological targets mentioned above, the skin surface is clearly the easiest to access. Surface treatment begins at the fringe of cosmetic practice. Special cosmetics are available to hide unsightly blemishes and birthmarks. These lessen self-consciousness and are psychologically uplifting. Applying a protective layer over the skin is sometimes desirable. For example, zinc oxide pastes are used to create a barrier between an infant and its diaper that adsorbs irritants found in urine, ameliorating diaper rash. These same pastes literally block out the sun and at the same time hold in moisture, protecting the ski enthusiast from facial sun and windburns on the high slopes. Transparent films containing ultraviolet light-absorbing chemicals are also used as sunscreens. Lip balms and like products lay down occlusive (water-impermeable) films over the skin, preventing dehydration of the underlying stratum corneum and thereby allaying dry skin and chapping. The...


The characteristic pharmacological profile associated with a specific drug is due to the physiological and biochemical makeup of cells targeted by specific drug receptors, but extrinsic and intrinsic influences that impinge on targeted cells can cause a remarkable degree of variation in response. Variations are best considered in the light of the drug's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, mechanisms that define the disposition and actions of drugs in individuals. Mechanisms that involve interactions between the xenobiotic and specific enzymes or receptors targeted by the xenobiotic are usually pertinent to variations of interest. Identification of the pharmacological mechanism responsible for an unusual variation in drug response can be a formidable task, but performance of a pharmacokinetic analysis in susceptible persons can often yield preliminary insights into the relative importance of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic phases of the response.

Colin D Bingle

The availability of a variety of restriction enzymes that cleave DNA at specific sites has made possible the identification of polymorphic regions in isolated DNA. These regions can be detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis when the polymorphism involves an enzymatic cleavage site. If the site is altered by the DNA polymorphism then the size of the fragments generated by the specific enzyme cleavage will be altered and can be detected by Southern blotting. Every person carries a significant number of DNA polymorphisms, and this means that no two individuals are identical in molecular makeup apart from a pair of identical twins.

Future Prospects

Over the decades, valuable information on molecular genetics of BS BE has been generated and this strong foundation would facilitate application oriented output of the surfactant industry. Promising biotechnological advances have expanded the applicability of BS in therapeutics, cosmetics, agriculture, food, beverages and bioremediation. Interaction among experts from diverse fields like microbiology, physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics is necessary. With the knowledge at hand, BS with desired qualities can be produced. Mutants and recombinants can be generated to achieve desired yield and properties of BS. Potent but harmless strains can be constructed by employing biotechnological advances. However, meticulous and concerted efforts in unfolding the molecular phenomena of BS production in yeast and fungi are essential. PCR based detection methods can be used to authenticate newer BS producers obtained by conventional screening methodologies. Additionally, switch...


The preparation of microcapsules is the single, most important use of coacervation-phase separation because microcapsules are widely used in many industries such as printing, food, aerospace, agriculture, cosmetics, and especially pharmaceuticals. Other methods of microencapsulation have been investigated and are used extensively. The two other principal methods of microencapsulation are chemical processes which include interfacial polymerization and in situ polymerization and also mechanical processes which include, for example, air suspension coating and spray drying (Kondo, 1979c Deasy, 1984c).

Homer Vesl

Homer also couples mGluRs to other intracellular effectors the constitutive and inducible forms of Homer can compete to regulate the coupling of group I mGluRs to N-type calcium and M-type potassium channel currents in neurons (Kammermeier et al. 2000). Moreover, stimulation of the NMDA receptor or application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor selectively up-regulate H1amRNAvia the MAPK cascade (Sato etal. 2001). In addition, the direct binding of Homer to the C-terminal tail of the mGluRs controls the constitutive activity observed for mGluRs 1a and 5 when overexpressed in heterologous cells, and expression of endogenous H1a in neurons induces the constitutive activity of mGluR1a or 5 indicating that they can directly activate the receptors independent of agonist activation (Ango et al. 2001). Thus, these studies indicate that Homer proteins can directly couple to mGluRs to regulate receptor responses in neurons, and that either synaptic activity, extracellular stimuli or...


Ingestion of boron from food (primarily fruits and vegetables) and water is the most frequent route of human exposure, but occupational exposures to boron dusts may be significant. Boron is also a component of several consumer products, including cosmetics medicines and insecticides. Populations residing in areas of the western United States with natural boron-rich deposits may be exposed to higher-than-average levels of boron.


An emulsion is a two-phase system consisting of at least two immiscible liquids (or two liquids that are saturated with each other), one of which is dispersed as globules (internal or dispersed phase) within the other liquid phase (external or continuous phase), generally stabilized by an emulsifying agent (12,98). Emulsions have been widely used in many areas of application, including the petroleum industry (99), agriculture (100,101), food technologies (102-108), pharmaceutics (109-115), and cosmetics (116-120). Very

Ingredient Selection

A USP or an NF grade substance is the preferred source of ingredients for compounding all other preparations. if that is not available, or when food, cosmetics, or other substances are or must be used, then the use of another high-quality source, such as analytical reagent (AR), certified American chemical society (Acs), or Food chemicals codex (Fcc) grade, is an option for professional judgment. For any substance used in compounding not purchased from a registered drug manufacturer, the compounder must establish purity and safety by reasonable means, which may include lot analysis, manufacturer reputation, or reliability of source.

Are Humans at Risk

The general presumption for wildlife is that exposure to environmental oestrogens is via food and water. Whether the same is true for humans is less certain. Food as well as containers for foodstuff and drinks may be important sources of some environmental oestrogens such as phytoestrogens, phthalate esters and bisphenol-A. There may be other more important routes of human exposure to such chemicals from substances such as the many lotions, cosmetics, detergents and shampoos that we now apply to our skins daily. Recent data suggest that that these products are likely to be oestrogenic, as they contain alkyl hydroxybenzoate preservatives. i3 Humans are exposed to a variety of endocrine disrupting chemicals throughout their lifetime establishing the level of exposure accurately presents a difficult task. Furthermore, there is the possibility of additive effects of chemicals in vivo, since this is clearly evident in vitro. i 6 Further information on oestrogenic chemicals and routes of...

Oils and Waxes

Lotions and ointments as well as other preparations such as baby lotions, sunscreens and cosmetics, and they provide cost effective solvents. Typically incorporated at up to 15 in lotions but at levels up to 95 in ointments, mineral oils comprise a complex mixture of branched alkanes (also termed paraffinics) and alkylated saturated ring compounds (napthenics). These materials are naturally occlusive, providing an additional layer on the stratum corneum surface that can reduce transepidermal water loss, so hydrating the tissue and potentially allowing greater drug delivery as described above for water. However, oils can also provide an additional skin surface barrier to penetration of polar molecules which must traverse this additional barrier, but could provide a reservoir for lipophilic materials on the skin surface when the bulk of the formulation has been removed. Further, mineral oils are also well known moisturising agents, again partly through skin surface occlusion and hence...

General Guidance

Many excipients have applications other than for pharmaceutical uses and are used in food, cosmetics, or industrial products. Thus, environmental conditions, equipment, and operational techniques employed in excipient manufacture often reflect the chemical industry rather than the pharmaceutical industry. Many chemical processes have the potential to produce toxic impurities from side reactions. Therefore, careful process control may be essential. Also, the manufacturing environments may contain deleterious substances. However, chemical processes used to manufacture excipients are either performed in closed systems that afford protection against such contamination even when the reaction vessels are not enclosed in buildings or else these processes are in environments that must be controlled.


Genetic makeup and response to, 3, 4 , 6 pharmacological viewpoint of, 53 exons allele detection for, 133-34 cause of, 100, 137 mouse models with, 279, 280i-286i testing for association with, 127, 128t-129t transposable elements and, 102 genetic makeup, exogenous substance response


We hear almost every day about the unwanted effects of prescription drugs and over-the-counter nostrums, of unsafe substances in foods, and of the perils of tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol. We cannot help but wonder why such effects occur in only a fraction of persons exposed, or why a drug that is therapeutic in one person may be ineffective, or even toxic, in another. This is the province of pharmacology. During the period in and around the 1950s, pharmacologists demonstrated, contrary to common belief, that adverse responses accompanying exposure to exogenous substances were closely tied to a person's genetic makeup (Figure 1.1). When this concept was proposed, it was not entirely new because biologists had long understood that the capacity of organisms to respond differently to the environment was genetically determined. Even so, demonstrating that heredity exerted important effects on human drug responsiveness was an innovative step that cast doubt on the notion that the...

Instillation [EU

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes also as research tool in protein biochemistry. NIH

Ion Channels

No field in physiology, it seems, is more confusing than that of electro-physiology, which has a language all to itself. Yet the past two decades have witnessed a massive increase in our understanding of ion channels and in our ability to identify their molecular makeup and their biophysical behavior. As the role of ion channels in signal transduction and cell physiology has been progressively elucidated, so too has the modulation of channel function by oxidation reduction reactions. The following section covers some basic electrophysiological concepts, after which the role of redox regulation in channel function will be discussed. The application of molecular biology to the field of ion channels has led to an explosion of information with respect to the relationship between structure and function of channel proteins. In this molecular age, it is possible that all channel proteins will ultimately be classified by their genetic makeup rather than by their functional phenotype. Not only...

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