Nonprotoplasmic Ergastic Cell Contents

Cluster Raphides From Crystal Cells

Calcium Oxalate Many plants detoxify soluble oxalic acid as insoluble calcium salts. Calcium oxalate crystallizes in characteristic forms these shapes can be very important for diagnostic purposes Figures 7.12 and 7.13 . The exact crystallographic forms of these crystals are determined by measuring their angles. This is difficult and many technical and nontechnical terms are used to describe them. Calcium oxalate crystals are birefractive birefringent , which makes them visible in polarized...

Quantitative Microscopy

In addition to measuring the size of cells and tissues with the eyepiece or stage micrometers, a number of other quantitative values are utilized for the microscopic evaluation of botanicals (predominantly leaves). These include palisade ratios, vein islet and stomatal numbers, and sto-matal index Palisade ratios. The palisade ratio is the average number of palisade cells that occur beneath an epidermal cell. The palisade ratio of many plants remains constant regardless of geographical location...