Phloem

Phloem tissue consists primarily of parenchyma but may also have sclerenchyma (fibers and, more rarely, sclereids). The conducting elements are thin-walled, axially elongated cells called sieve elements. These may be of two types (1) sieve cells in gymnosperms and primitive angio-sperms, and (2) sieve tube members and their associated nonconducting companion cells in most angiosperms. Although these conducting cells play an important role in the living plant, they are very similar throughout...

Xylem

Xylem is the primary conducting tissue and storage system for water and solutes and gives mechanical strength and support to the plant. It is composed primarily of FIGURE 8.2 (continued.) Examples of stomata. Surface views of (e and f) upper epidermis paracytic stomata of Senna alexandrina leaf (g and h) lower epidermis diacytic stomata of Scutellaria lateriflora leaf. (Images courtesy of Prof. Dr. Reinhard L nger, AGES PharmMed, Vienna, Austria.) FIGURE 8.2 (continued.) Examples of stomata....

Vitex agnuscastus L

Chaste Tree Fruit Agni casti Fructus Verbenaceae Chaste tree fruit has a long history of use in the treatment of gynecological conditions and, specifically, for promoting fertility. Numerous clinical trials support its use as a dop-aminergic agonist and prolactin inhibitor with clinical efficacy demonstrated for gynecomastia, PMS, and menopausal symptoms. A number of different species of Vitex are traded, including species from China and India (e.g., V. negundo, V. rotundifolia, V. trifolia)....

Drawings

Endocarp palisade layer (ts). 3. Testa outer epidermis outer surface of the mac-rosclereid layer showing sinuous anticlinal walls and narrow, star-shaped lumens (sv). 4. Testa outer epidermis inner end of the macro-sclereid layer showing polygonal walls and narrow lumens (sv). 5. Testa outer epidermis macrosclereids with narrow lumens and thickened walls (ts). 6. Testa inner epidermis dark brown thickened and pitted parenchyma with intercellular spaces (sv). 7....

Identification of Bark

A transverse section of chopped or whole material with the outer bark attached will show abundant suberized cork cells and possibly lenticels. The inner bark consists of phloem tissue and any supporting or secretory tissue. Vessels and tracheids should be absent. The primary diagnostic characteristics of bark to note include cork, phelloderm, outer bark, cortex, and bast. Powdered bark will contain sieve tubes and thickened parenchyma. Cork, fibers, sclereids, starch, calcium oxalate, and...

Transverse Section Of Datura Stramonium Leaf

FIGURE 8.7 Phloem between endodermis and xylem with sieve elements (cells too small to see in image) of Clematis chinensis root. (Image courtesy of Prof. Dr. Reinhard L nger, AGES PharmMed, Vienna, Austria.) FIGURE 8.8 Primary types of vascular bundles. (a) Collateral vascular bundle of Digitalis lanata leaf (transverse section) (b) collateral bundle with fiber caps of Echinacea purpurea stem (transverse section) (c) midvein bicol-lateral bundle of Atropa belladonna leaf (transverse section)...

Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton

Vaccinii macrocarpi Fructus Ericaceae Cranberry fruit and its juice are primarily used in the Western herb market for the treatment and prevention of bladder infections. Although cranberry juice cocktail has been most frequently studied, cranberry powder and powdered concentrates are common ingredients in herbal supplements used for supporting a healthy urinary system. With widespread cultivation and familiarity of the fruits, adulteration is not evident, though there are very detailed quality...

Info

Differentiation of the Underground Parts of Echinacea angustifolia, E. atrorubens, E. pallida, and E. purpurea and Detection of the Adulteration of Parthenium integrifolium The differentiation between the underground parts of the Echinacea species is quite difficult, even using Echinacea atrorubens Nutt. Echinacea Atrorubens Root Echinaceae atrorubentis Radix Asteraceae The roots of Echinacea species are widely used in North America and Europe for various types of infections and for their...

Aristolochia fangchi Y c Wu ex L D chou S M Hwang

The roots of Aristolochia fangchi are used almost exclusively in traditional Chinese medicine. A. fangchi contains the toxic aristolochic acids (AAs) and, because of this, has been removed from the Chinese pharmacopoeia (PPRC). Ingredients or products for internal consumption that contain AA are prohibited for importation or trade in the European Union and United States, though certain species remain available in some parts of Asia. Nonetheless, A. fangchi may still be encountered in commerce...

Leaf

Surface view Upper epidermal cells with wavy anticlinal walls diacytic stomata 20-25 m long are abundant unicellular or bicellular uniseriate covering trichomes, up to approximately 600 m long, have thick cell walls, an acute tip, and cuticular striations or warts that are very fine or missing three types of glandular trichomes occur (1) those with a unicellular stalk and a unicellular ovoid head approximately 25-30 im long (2) those with a unicellular stalk and two secretory cells in a row and...

Differentiation between Panax ginseng and Oplopanax horridus

The secondary xylem of P. ginseng consists mostly of parenchyma, whereas that of O. horridus consists primarily of fibers. Overall, the wood of O. horridus has a much denser and more regular appearance (compare photomicrographs of the root transverse section of each species). In addition, the secretory ducts of P. ginseng are considerably smaller in diameter (up to 120 im) compared to those of O. horridus (up to 200 m).

Prunus africanum Hook f Kalkman syn Pygeum africanum Hook f

Pygeum is native to Africa, where it was traditionally used to treat bladder conditions and diseases of old men. Modern research provides some confirmation of the efficacy of pygeum for treatment of enlarged prostate. Due to demand for the herbal drug and timber, pygeum is environmentally threatened throughout much of its growing range because of loss of habitat and overharvesting. Regeneration practices are taking place in some parts of Africa. Because the bark is very hard, soaking in water...

Cola nitida Vent A chev

Cola nut is a common herbal source of caffeine and is used in herbal stimulant products. Cola nut should be sold without the outer testa. Surface view Outer epidermal cells are brown, polygonal, thick walled. Transverse section Brown outer epidermal cells, with thick walls, radially elongated colorless subepidermal layers, thin-walled, elliptical cells often show evidence of secondary cell divisions few and inconspicuous vascular bundles isodiametric inner epidermal cells (where the two...

Flower

Surface view Outer epidermis of the calyx consists of axially elongated cells with very wavy anticlinal walls and stomata and trichomes similar to those found on the leaf glandular scales are arranged in rows between the major veins the covering trichomes of the calyx throat are uniseriate and slender, with cuticular striations corolla epidermal cells have wavy anticlinal walls uniseriate thin-walled covering trichomes with cuticular striations occur on the corolla tube and lobes glandular...

Pausinystalia johimbe K Schum Pierre ex Beille

Yohimbe bark is native to western Africa, where it was traditionally used as a sexual stimulant, primarily for men, and for the treatment of impotence. It is rich in the alkaloid yohimbine, which has been used for erectile dysfunction in medicine for more than 100 years. Surface view Cork cells are polygonal in outline. Transverse section Thin, red-brown cork consists of cells with thickened and considerably pitted walls cortex (absent in older stems) parenchymatous, roundish cells with brown...

Five Criteria for Authoritative Characterizations

Five primary criteria need to be met for a microscopic characterization to be considered authoritative. First and foremost is identification. The characterization has to be developed from a botanical whose identity has been appropriately determined as to genus and species by a qualified botanist. Without this, there can be no confidence in any characterization that is developed. For plant material to be considered truly botanically authenticated, it must be obtained directly from a voucher...

Images

Root transverse section showing the cork, secondary phloem (left), cambial line, and outer portion of secondary xylem (right). 2. Cambial region showing the phloem (upper half), cambial line, and vessels and parenchyma in the secondary xylem (lower half) (ts). 3. Central portion of a root showing the scattered bundles of vessels and fibers in the secondary xylem, with primary xylem in the center (ts). 5. Secondary xylem showing vessels surrounded by parenchyma (ts). 6. Secondary xylem showing...

Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch ex Dc Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin Glycyrrhiza glabra L

Licorice Root Radix Glycyrrhizae Pinyin Gan cao Sanskrit Yastimadhu Licorice root is one of the most commonly used botanicals in the herbal materia medica of many cultures. In Western herbal tradition, it is predominantly used for its demulcent properties and in Chinese tradition it is used for its actions as a strengthening tonic. The Chinese pharmacopoeia accepts the root and rhizome of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC., Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin, and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. as licorice...

Stems of Monocots

Monocot stems viewed in transverse section are characterized by a scattered arrangement of vascular bundles in a matrix of parenchyma tissue. Three main types can be distinguished Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem and an endodermis is absent. Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem and an endodermis is present. Vascular bundles are restricted to the area interior to the endodermis. Monocot stems typically have collateral or amphivasal bundles. A pith is usually...

Rauvolfia Serpentina Roots Tranverse Sections

FIGURE 7.19 Types of parenchyma tissue. (a) Pitted storage parenchyma in the secondary xylem of Rauvolfia serpentina bark (transverse section) (b) storage parenchyma containing starch of Zingiber officinale rhizome (transverse section) (c) spongy parenchyma of Aesculus hippocastanum leaf (transverse section) (d) chlorenchyma and aerenchyma of Tussilago farfara leaf (transverse section) (e) elongated cortical parenchyma of Actaea racemosa root (transverse section) (f) pith parenchyma of Ricinus...

Scutellaria lateriflora L

Herba Scutellariae lateriflorae Lamiaceae Skullcap is one of the primary nerve tonics used in Western herbal medicine. A number of different species native to North America were used for various purposes by a large variety of tribes. In addition to its nervine properties, skullcap has also been used for colds, rabies, and as an antispasmodic. Different species of Scutellaria can be traded and sold as skullcap. A complete microscopic examination of these species is lacking. A different plant...

Conclusion

Understanding the tissues and their associated cells allows the microscopist to differentiate between the various plant parts he or she will be examining (Table 8.5). The following chapter presents the manner in which the tissues and cells are arranged within a plant organ. It is their arrangement that gives a plant its unique and diagnostic fingerprint for purposes of identification. FIGURE 8.6 Characteristics of tracheary elements (xylem showing vessels and pitted cells, and cell walls). (a)...

Panax quinquefolius L

Radix Panacis quinquefolii Pinyin Xi yang shen American ginseng has been a staple of North American herbalism for several hundred years. It was traditionally used by Native American tribes throughout the very broad growing range of the plant. Among the Cherokee, it was among the most highly regarded of medicinal plants. Economically, it has been an internationally traded commodity since the days of Daniel Boone. The majority of wild-harvested and cultivated American ginseng is exported to Asia,...

Rs171a463 2011

Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http www.crcpress.com Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success. This text is dedicated to Paul Coates and Joseph Betz of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), National Institutes of Health (NIH). They recognized the value of this work in helping to promote botanical microscopy as a quality assurance tool, provided funding, and expressed...

Electron Microscopy

An electron microscope (EM) is an extremely powerful instrument that is used when a higher degree of resolution than light microscopy is required. For example, pectin fibers in fruits and vegetables are too small to be viewed with light microscopy, but are readily observed with EM. Electron microscopy can provide almost a completely different body of information when compared to light microscopy, due to its greater level of resolution. For some plant materials, EM may be helpful in...

Stems

The stem is the central aboveground axis of seed plants. It supports the photosynthetic and reproductive tissues of the plant, positioning the leaves to intercept light and the flowers for pollination provides structural support for the Actinostele Actinostele of root Plectostele Actinostele Actinostele of root Plectostele FIGURE 9.3 Primary types of steles observed in plants. (Wasicky, R. 1929. Lehrbuch der Physiopharmakognosie f r Pharmazeuten. Wien and Leipzig Guter Zustand.) FIGURE 9.3...

Echinacea purpurea L Moench

Echinaceae purpureae Fructus (semen) Asteraceae Echinacea purpurea seed is not commonly used by itself but is sometimes used in conjunction with other parts of Echinacea. Because of its widespread cultivation, it is not readily subject to adulteration. Transverse section Transparent exocarp mesocarp of slightly thickened, very small, pitted orange-brown cells, elongated in longitudinal section walls of innermost cells may be coated with phytomelanin axially elongated cells with fine reticulate...

References and Bibliography

ANSI ASQ (American National Standards Institute American Society for Quality). 2003. ANSI ASQ Z1.4-2003 Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes. Milwaukee, WI ANSI ASQ, 94 pp. Dahms, S., and G. Hildebrandt. 1998. Some remarks on the design of three-class sampling plans. Journal of Food Protection 61 457-461. Denston, T. C. 1958. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy, 5th ed. London Pitman Medical Publishing Co, LTD., 637 pp. EDQM (European Pharmacopoeia Directorate for Quality of...

Phyllanthus emblica L

Phyllanthi emblicae Fructus Pinyin Yu gan zi Sanskrit Amalaki Euphorbiaceae Amla fruit, also known as amalaki in Sanskrit and Indian gooseberry in English, is one of the most popularly used and widely consumed of all herbal foods and medicines in India. It is a component of the legendary ayurvedic herbal compound triphala, which is used by ayurvedic practitioners as a digestive aid, detoxifier, and longevity tonic. There are varying qualities of amla in international trade. The fruits should be...

Carolus Linnaeus Father of Taxonomy

The binomial system of nomenclature used in botany was developed by Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) (Figure 2.3), a Swedish medical doctor and botanist who recognized the similarities between man and ape and named our species Homo sapiens. He also recognized that even plants had sex, at a time when the word sex was rarely uttered (Weissman 2007). Linnaeus laid down the first rules of modern nomenclature in 1737 (Lawrence 1955) and formalized the binomial system of nomenclature with the publication...

Bupleurum spp

Bupleurum is one of the primary botanicals used in traditional Chinese medicine for supporting liver health. According to the Chinese pharmacopoeia (2005), Radix Bupleuri may consist of the roots of Bupleurum chinense DC. (bei chai hu) or Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd (nan chai hu). Remnants of aerial stem parts may be present in commercial material. There are numerous other species of Bupleurum that may also be traded as Radix Bupleuri. These are not easily differentiated morphologically....

Hamamelis virginiana L

Witch hazel bark has been used for centuries as an astringent tonifer. It has been a common ingredient in cosmetics and facial washes and has not been associated with adulterations. Leaves as well as bark have been traded and are readily distiguishable from each other. When viewed microscopically, faint tangential striations in the bark can be observed (Youngken 1930). Transverse section Cork thick, composed of dark red-brown, tangentially elongated, narrow cells phelloderm conspicuous, not...

Identification of Floral Parts

Chopped material When floral characteristics are examined, particular attention should be paid to the epidermis absence or presence of trichomes characteristics of sto-mata presence and characteristics of pollen, which can be highly diagnostic and any cell contents. If the flowers are small, whole ones may be present. Otherwise, fragmented floral parts will be readily identifiable, along with reproductive parts. Pollen grains will usually be present in mature flowers and absent in immature or...

Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F H Wigg

Taraxaci officinale Folium Asteraceae Dandelion leaf is used in Western herbalism for its effects as a diuretic. In this regard, some studies have shown it to be as effective as some conventional diuretics. Dandelion leaf and root, individually, and the combination of leaf and root are widely used and can be considered as separate or combination medicines. This characterization is of the leaf alone. Taraxacum officinale shows a considerable amount of intraspecies morphological variation due to...

Pharmaceutical Nomenclature Medical Botany

Pharmaceutical names are applied to various plant parts that are used medicinally and to medicinal preparations. This terminology is primarily used in pharmacopoeias and some materia medica and is also referred to as galenical names, so named after Claudius Galen of Pergamon (ca. AD 131-208), the noted Greek physician whose medical works remained authoritative for several centuries (Figure 2.5). Pharmaceutical names are derivatives of the binomial, but additionally include the plant part used...

Adulterations Defined

The purity of food products, including dietary supplements, is regulated according to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) under the regulatory authority of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To paraphrase federal regulations, an adulteration is any component of a product whose identity is not as disclosed or whose quality is such that the material value of the product is compromised in any way in terms of quality, purity, or safety (Table 3.1). In botanical products, adulterations can...

Matricaria recutita L

Matricariae recutitae Flos Asteraceae German chamomile is one of the most popular herbal teas worldwide. It is used as a mild sleep aid and painkiller a digestive bitter to settle an upset stomach for colic, fever, restlessness, and teething in infants and topically as an antimicrobial, to name only a few of its primary uses. German chamomile may be mixed or substituted with Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile. The two flowers can be readily distinguished from each other (see Chamaemelum...

Identification of Stems Stolons and Rhizomes

Stems Chopped or whole material Green herbaceous stems should be readily recognizable without the aid of the microscope. Aerial stem material will normally be FIGURE 9.7 Secondary stems of dicots and gymnosperms. (a) Inner part of secondary xylem, rounded areas of primary xylem, large pith medullary rays through secondary and primary xylem to pith of Aristolochia manshurien-sis stem (transverse section) (b) outer part of secondary xylem, cambium, secondary phloem, group of fibers, cortex, cork...

Stem including pedicels and stolons

Surface view Epidermal cells have a striated cuticle anisocytic stomata up to 40 m x 25 m covering trichomes resemble those on the leaves. Transverse section Epidermis outer cortex of lamellar collenchyma cells with thickened tangential walls secretory ducts are arranged in a loose ring in the cortical parenchyma, often opposite the collateral vascular bundles 6-12 vascular bundles are arranged in a ring phloem bundles are often capped by groups of lignified fibers in older stems, fibers form a...

Identification of Roots

A transverse section of chopped or whole root material shows the characteristic arrangement of the tissues found in many roots. A central cylinder of xylem surrounded by phloem, with a typical but not universal absence of pith, is indicative of secondary growth in gymnosperms and dicots. Roots with primary growth will have a central xylem with a varying number of poles and phloem situated between the poles. Monocot roots can be identified by their thickened endodermis and the typically polyarch...

Plantago major L

Plantain Leaf Plantaginis Folium Plantaginaceae The leaves of plantain are commonly used as a wilderness first-aid plant and applied to cuts, scratches, burns, and bites. It is also taken to stop internal bleeding and used externally in compresses and salves. Two primary types of plantain are commonly used lance- or narrow-leafed and broad-leafed (P. major) plantain. These can be used interchangeably. Surface view Irregularly shaped upper and lower epidermal cells with slightly rounded to wavy...

Echinacea angustifolia Dc

Echinaceae angustifoliae Radix Asteraceae Echinacea angustifolia is one of the three primary forms of Echinacea used in Western herbalism to stimulate immune function. Of the species, E. angustifolia is preferred by modern herbalists. It can be adulterated with the botanical Parthenium integrifolium (see separate entry for Parthenium) and other species of Echinacea. Transverse section Dark brown epidermis of polygonal cells is present in primary tissue in older roots with secondary growth, cork...

Botanical Nomenclature Ever Evolving

Botanical names can undergo revision over time if new botanical examination reveals characters that are more indicative, warranting reclassification of the plant to another genus, species, or variety. In such cases, the primary author is maintained. As an example, Echinacea purpurea was originally named Rudbeckia purpurea by Linnaeus in 1753. This was later reclassified as Echinacea purpurea by botanist Conrad Moench in 1794 and gained acceptance in the botanical literature. Therefore, the full...

Pollen

Sepal Texture

Pollen is the fine, powder-like material produced by the anthers of flowering plants. These pollen grains FIGURE 9.10 Microscopic characteristics of floral petals and sepals. (a) Crataegus monogyna flower showing anomocytic stomata on a sepal (surface view) (b) sepal of Hypericum perforatum flower showing reticulate venation and acute tip with a single red secretory gland (surface view) (c) pappus of multiseriate acute hairs in a single row at the base of the floral tube of Arnica flower...

About the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia

There is no higher religion than human service. To work for the common good is the greatest creed. Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) German theologian, philosopher, physician, and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, 1953 The American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (AHP) is very much a work for the common good. AHP was founded in 1995 as a nonprofit 501(c)(3) educational foundation dedicated to the advancement of knowledge and quality of medicinal herbal products and herbal dietary supplements. The purpose for...

Hedysarum polybotris Hand Mazz

Hedysarum is used in Chinese medicine as an energy tonic and is similar in action to astragalus. However, hedysarum is sometimes used as a substitute for astragalus, and while the two are similar in activity, they may not be medicinally equivalent from an immunomodulatory perspective. Specifically, hedysarum lacks astragaloside IV, a primary immunomodulatory triterpene of Astragalus mongholicus. In hedysarum, fiber bundles are surrounded by parenchymatous cells containing prisms of calcium...

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Ginger Rhizome Zingiberi Rhizoma Pinyin Gan jiang (dry) Sanskrit Shunthi (dry) Ginger is ubiquitously used in almost all systems of herbal medicine, including ayurvedic, Chinese, Western, and Hispanic folk traditions. There are many different cuts, shapes, and forms of ginger. However, the microscopic characteristics of ginger are the same regardless of cut, with one exception In some samples, the outer peel (periderm) may be present or absent (peeled). Transverse section Rhizome is often...

Flowers

Calyx Five teeth epidermal cells of wavy-walled, elongated cells stomata on outer surface only, mainly diacytic with some anomocytic covering trichomes of two types occur (1) as on leaf, up to 1,500 m long (2) short unise-riate, one to five cells, 50-150 m long, on the tip of the calyx teeth these are polymorphic with most cells convex in outline, terminal cell acute, rounded or mucronate, and warty or horizontally striated cuticle. Glandular trichomes of three types occur types (1) and (2) as...

Basic Plant Anatomy

The various plant structures or morphologies are composed of cells that are aggregated into tissues (Figure 7.8), which are further arranged into organs (Figure 7.9) together, they form the whole plant (Figure 7.1). The specific cells and tissues that are present specifically, the arrangement of the tissues within the organs provide the key diagnostic microscopic characters. The ability to identify, differentiate, and describe individual plant cells and tissues is important for the botanical...

Microscopic Examination of Unknown Materials

Occasionally, a raw material with an unknown identity is encountered. The microscopic identification of such FIGURE 4.10 Comparison of microscopic characteristics of (a) Hoodia gordonii epidermis and (b) characteristic stone cell of its common adulterant Opuntia spp. (Hoodia image courtesy of Prof. Zhao Zhongzhen, Baptist University, Hong Kong Opuntia image courtesy of Alkemists Pharmaceuticals, Costa Mesa, CA.) FIGURE 4.10 Comparison of microscopic characteristics of (a) Hoodia gordonii...

Grifla frondosa Dicks Fr SF Gray

Maitake Mushroom Fruiting Body (Sporocarp) Maitake is one of the most popularly used of herbal food supplements for immune support while undergoing conventional therapies for cancer. Although some data support this use, well-designed clinical trials are few. Like many of the immune supportive mushrooms, maitake is rich in a polysaccharide beta-glucan fraction known as D-fraction. Both the fruiting body and mycelium biomass of this species are used. This microscopic characterization was...

Stem Tree and Root Barks

Bark is a protective layer that develops in stems and roots during secondary growth. As the vascular cambium produces secondary xylem and phloem, the diameter of the plant axis increases. The primary protective layer the epidermis cannot expand, so expansion is accomplished with the development of a lateral meristem called the cork cambium, or phellogen. In stems, the cork cambium forms as a layer beneath the epidermis. In roots, the cork cambium typically arises in the pericycle. The cells of...

Types of Adulterations Botanical Substitution

One of the most common types of adulterations occurs when one botanical is mistaken or substituted for another. In natural habitats, at point of harvest this can result from FIGURE 3.1 John Uri Lloyd (1849-1936), pharmacist, scientist, inventor, manufacturer, and novelist. His most important contributions were in the field of pharmacy, pharmaceutical extraction, plant chemistry, and pharmacognosy, with pioneering work in colloidal chemistry. Because of his allegiance to the Eclectic medical...

Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz

Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae Pinyin Bai zhu Bai-zhu atractylodes is predominantly used in traditional Chinese herbalism specifically, as a tonifier for the digestive system to improve digestion and assimilation. There are various species and forms of atractylodes. Some can easily be distinguished microscopically from each other, but others cannot be. Complete microscopic differentiation of the species in the English language is lacking. Transverse section Thin cork a conspicuous layer of...

Ganoderma lucidum curtis Fr P Karst

Reishi Mushroom (Sporocarp) Pinyin Ling zhi Ganoderma lucidum, more commonly known by its Japanese name of reishi, is one of the most highly regarded botanicals of traditional Chinese herbalism. It possesses a broad range of beneficial actions on the cardiovascular, hepatic, and immune systems. Reishi mushroom is commonly found in immune supportive formulas for general health purposes and for those undergoing conventional therapies for cancer. The many different varieties and forms of Ganoderma...

Case History of Adulteration Mistaken Identity of Hoodia gordonii

The succulent hoodia provides a good example of the microscopy challenge that can arise when authoritative standards are not available. Based on the promise of an elixir for weight loss, the hoodia cactus entered into commercial trade where it quickly became one of the most prevalent botanicals sold in the marketplace. Hoodia is a species native to Africa protected under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) therefore, all material traded internationally has to be...

Differentiation of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna

Although the fruits of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna are most widely used, other species, such as the Washington hawthorn (C. phaenopyrum), as well as other closely related species, may be used. Differences between the two primary species are of little practical importance from a medicinal perspective, though there are more supportive scientific data on hawthorn leaf and flower. Seed number is the best differentiating character between the species, although it is not absolute C....

Eleutherococcus senticosus Rupr Maxim Maxim

Eleuthero Root and Rhizome (Siberian Ginseng) Eleuthero, more commonly known as Siberian ginseng, is a member of the ginseng family Araliaceae and was once botanically classified as Acanthopanax or thorny ginseng. It continues to be cited as Acanthopanax throughout most of Asia. Like Panax species plants, eleuthero is used as an adaptogenic tonic and is one of the most widely researched adaptogens in the world. Eleuthero may be used interchangeably with a number of the other 34 species of...

Frangula purshiana Dc J G cooper syn Rhamnus purshiana Dc

Cascara Sagrada Bark Cortex Frangulae purshianae Rhamnaceae Cascara sagrada is one of the most widely used botanical laxatives in North America. Formerly named Rhamnus, cascara contains anthraquinone glycosides and is closely related to other anthraquinone-containing botanicals such as frangula (aka buckthorn F. alnus). The various species of Frangula may get confused in trade and can be distinguished histologically. F. alnus lacks sclereids and the medullary rays do not converge at the outer...

Use of Authoritative Microscopic Characterizations

Over the more than 170 years since Schleiden declared that the cell was the fundamental unit in plants, microscopy has been applied to plant materials and thousands of microscopic characterizations have been developed for the botanicals used in ayurvedic, Chinese, Egyptian, and Western herbal medicine. This is good news for quality control personnel because they do not need to reinvent the microscopic wheel in developing their own microscopic characterizations. Microscopic characterization is...

Illicium verum J D Hook

Star Anise Fruit (Chinese Star Anise) Star anise fruits are used in herbal teas in different parts of the world for the treatment of colic and appear to be relatively safe. However, I. verum is sometimes adulterated with a Japanese species of Illicium I. anisatum that is also known as Japanese star anise or shikimi. I. anisatum has been associated with seizures in infants to whom the tea was given. This adulteration has occurred at least since 1881.

Preparation of Powders Milling and Sieving

For examination of powdered material, a dried plant sample is first milled to a consistent size. Depending on the equipment available, the powder can be ground to an appropriate size in a mill that has a sieve attached or milled in a standard grinder and sifted after grinding. Sieve sizes are identified according to their mesh aperture size (millimeter and micron). In the past, sieves were sized according to the number of holes per square inch (e.g., five holes per square inch), but today they...

Trichomes In Pharmacy

That quinine doesn't work anymore take wormwood Here take these herbs with a song and prayer AHP (American Herbal Pharmacopoeia). 2001. Goldenseal root, Hydrasits canadensis. Scotts Valley, CA, 36 pp. Barnes, J. 2000. Pharmacognosy in the 21st century. Pharmaceutical Journal 264 (7095) 701-703. Bender, G. A., and R. A. Thom. 1966. Great moments in pharmacy The stories and paintings in the series, a history of pharmacy in pictures by the Parke, Davis Company. Detroit Northwood Institute Press,...

Stephania tetrandra S Moore

Radix Stephaniae tetrandrae Pinyin Han fang ji, fang ji The roots of Stephania tetrandra are used almost exclusively in traditional Chinese medicine, predominantly for their ability to drain dampness. The common name for Stephania in Chinese pinyin is fang ji or, more specifically, han fang ji. This shares the common name of fang ji or, more specifically, guang fang ji, with Aristolochia fangchi, a botanical that contains the nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids (AAs). Stephania does...

V

i-3f,a* tVi A 'J frA'f Va FIGURE 7.11 Primary and secondary cell wall structures. (a) Fibers of Uncaria tomentosa stem showing primary wall and superimposed secondary cell wall (bluish outline) (b) Actaea racemosa root parenchyma showing cells with secondary walls (transverse section). (Images courtesy of Prof. Dr. Reinhard L nger, AGES PharmMed, Vienna, Austria.) FIGURE 7.11 Primary and secondary cell wall structures. (a) Fibers of Uncaria tomentosa stem showing primary wall and superimposed...

Rauvolfia serpentina L Benth ex Kurz

Rauvolfiae Radix Sanskrit Sarpagandha Rauwolfia is native to India, Pakistan, Burma, Thailand, and Indonesia, among other regions. In India it was traditionally used for conditions ranging from snakebite and mania to epilepsy. Rauvolfia yields the hypotensive and sedative reserpine-group alkaloids. Transverse section Cork has a stratified appearance consisting of alternating narrow tangential bands of radially narrow nonlignified cells and radially broad lignified cells phelloderm with starch...

Trichome In Rhizome

Transverse section Bark is scalloped in outline, with convex areas aligned with the secondary xylem and concavities aligned with medullary rays thin cork consists of narrow bands of red-brown parenchyma alternating with bands of colorless parenchyma tangentially elongated groups of fibers occur interior to the cork and exterior to the secondary phloem these groups are separated by parenchyma outside the medullary rays, fibers are replaced by sclereids secondary xylem consists of cuneiform...

Rhizome

Structure is similar to that of root, but secondary xylem forms a ring around a central pith. Starch Abundant in parenchyma granules are simple or compound in aggregates of two or three within an aggregate, granules vary considerably in size, up to 25 m diameter individual granules have a distinct central split or stellate hilum large granules have a fine concentric striation after boiling with chloral hydrate solution, gelatinized starch remainders are conspicuous starch granules in cells with...

Quantitative Microscopy

In addition to measuring the size of cells and tissues with the eyepiece or stage micrometers, a number of other quantitative values are utilized for the microscopic evaluation of botanicals (predominantly leaves). These include palisade ratios, vein islet and stomatal numbers, and sto-matal index Palisade ratios. The palisade ratio is the average number of palisade cells that occur beneath an epidermal cell. The palisade ratio of many plants remains constant regardless of geographical location...

Microscope Slides

For observing plant tissues with a microscope, the sample being viewed must be placed on a glass slide so that light FIGURE 5.14 Using a drawing tube for documenting cellular structures. The structure (a) is viewed to scale (b). The drawing tube allows the microscopist to view the structure and pencil simultaneously through the oculars (c) and trace the structure onto the drawing surface (d-f). (Images courtesy of Prof. Dr. Reinhard L nger, AGES PharmMed, Vienna, Austria.) FIGURE 5.14 Using a...

Terminalia bellerica Gaertn Roxb

Bellericae myrobalani Fructus Sanskrit Bibhitaki Belleric myrobalan, more commonly referred to in the herb trade by the names behada or bibhitaki, is an ingredient in the most widely used formula of ayurvedic medicine the three-fruit combination triphala, which consists of behada with amla (Phyllanthus emblica) and harada (Terminalia chebula). The three fruits are often sold combined. Although the quality of the fruits can vary substantially, the identity is typically correct. Fruits are traded...

Terminalia chebula Retz

Chebulic myrobalan, more commonly referred to in the herb trade by the names harada or haritaki, is an ingredient in the most widely used formula of ayurvedic medicine the three-fruit combination triphala, which consists of harada with amla (Phyllanthus emblica) and behada (Terminalia bellerica). The three fruits are often sold combined. Although the quality of the fruits can vary substantially, the identity is typically correct. Fruits are traded in whole form and with the seed removed. This...

Different Sections Different Views

Anatomical characteristics that are used for identification of plant parts are located either on the surface or in the inner tissues of the plant part. If the structures are on the surface, as is typical of delicate leaves and floral structures, and the material is thin enough to allow for light to pass through, no sectioning is required and the sample can be cleared and viewed (see Surface View section). Materials rich in thermolabile compounds that can be destroyed when exposed to heat, such...

Mentha x piperita L

Peppermint Leaf Menthae piperitae Folium Sanskrit Pudina Peppermint has been used for centuries as a beverage, in food products, and in perfumeries. It is one of the most popular of all herbal teas and is used medicinally for its diaphoretic and carminative properties. The wide variety of mints on the commercial market may get confused with each other, though the universal familiarity of peppermint greatly reduces the chances for adulteration. Surface view The upper epidermis consists of cells...

Botanical Reference Materials

In good manufacturing practices (GMPs) for the production of dietary supplements as well as various FDA guidance documents (e.g., FDA 1999), considerable attention FIGURE 4.11 Examples of leaf stomata characteristic of specific plant families. (a) Paracytic (Senna alexandrina Fabaceae) (b) diacytic (Melissa officinalis Lamiaceae) (c) anisocytic (Datura stramonium Solanaceae). (Images courtesy of Prof. Dr. Reinhard L nger, AGES PharmMed, Vienna, Austria.) is paid to the use of reference...

Plants

Basic Mushroom Plant Structure

A great number and diversity of forms exist within the plant kingdom. Living land plants are generally divided FIGURE 6.1 Examples of edible and medicinal seaweed, fungi, and lichen. (a) Dulse seaweed (Palmaria palmata) (b) Irish moss seaweed (Chondrus crispus) (c) Kelp seaweed (Laminaria spp.) (d) maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa). (Photographs courtesy of American Herbal Pharmacopoeia .) FIGURE 6.1 Examples of edible and medicinal seaweed, fungi, and lichen. (a) Dulse seaweed (Palmaria...

Contents

Foreword by Norman R. xxi About the Editors, Authors, and AHP Botanical Microscopy About Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines xxxv SECTION 1 Introduction to Botanical Microscopy Chapter 1 Classical Botanical Pharmacognosy From Dioscorides to Modern Herbal Chapter 2 What's in a Name Nomenclature of Botanical Materials 31 Chapter 3 To Be or Not To Be A Focus on Botanical Adulteration 43 Chapter 4 Microscopy for Identification of Botanical Raw Materials Uses and Chapter 5 Setting Up...

Ligulate Floret

Surface view Pistillate short corolla tube, with limb prolonged on one side into a three-toothed ligule abaxial epidermal cells are slightly elongated with sinuous anticlinal walls adaxial epidermal cells more or less quadratic in outline, papillose obvious cuticular striations on both sides biseriate glandular trichomes frequently on corolla tube style and cypsela are similar to those of disk florets. Powder Intact disk florets numerous pollen grains with spiny exine fragments of involucral...

Ephedra sinica Stapf Ephedra equisetina Bunge E intermedia

Ephedra is one of the primary herbal decongestants used worldwide. It formed the basis of ephedrine-based pharmaceuticals and continues to be used for this purpose today. Due to concerns over the misuse of concentrated ephedrine products for weight loss and athletic performance, ephedra for use as a dietary supplement ingredient has been banned. According to the Chinese pharmacopoeia (PPRC 2005), three species of Ephedra are accepted interchangeably as Herba Ephedrae E. sinica Stapf, E....

Illicium anisatum L Shikimi Fruit

Species of Illicium are used for the treatment of colic in infants and children. The primary species used is Chinese star anise, I. verum. However, shikimi fruits, also known as Japanese star anise, have adulterated the I. verum market since at least 1881 and have been associated with causing seizures in children. With standard light microscopy, the anatomy of shikimi fruit is extremely similar to that of star anise except for differences in the palisade cells of the endocarp, astrosclereids of...

Ginkgo biloba L

Ginkgo Leaf Folium Ginkgo Ginkgoaceae The extract of ginkgo leaves is one of the most widely used and well researched of all herbal products worldwide. Numerous studies report on its ability to enhance peripheral circulation, improve mental acuity, and even slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Throughout most of the world, the proprietary ginkgo extract used in most studies EGb 761 (Schwabe Germany) is an approved pharmaceutical. Ginkgo leaves are so widely cultivated and characteristic...

About the Editors Authors and Associates

John Heywood (1497-1580), English playwright and poet Roy Upton, herbalist, has been working and practicing professionally as an herbalist since 1981. Trained in ayurvedic, Chinese, Caribbean, and Western herbal medicine traditions, Roy is the founder, executive director, and editor of the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia is cofounder, past president, and current vice president of the American Herbalists Guild (AHG) and serves on the General Chapters Committee of the United States Pharmacopeia...

Show Image For Multiseriate Trichome

Stem transverse section (top to bottom) layered cork cortex with sclereids and cluster crystals fiber bundles outside the secondary phloem vascular cambium and the outer part of the secondary xylem showing vessels, tracheids, and medullary rays. 2. Secondary xylem and pith note the alternating rings of wide and narrow vessels (ts). 3. Cork showing radially elongated cells alternating with narrow concentric bands of small, rectangular, orangish brown cells (ts). 4. Phelloderm (top) and primary...

Cinchona succirubra Pav ex Klotzsch syn C pubescens Vahl

The bark of the cinchona tree, also known as Peruvian bark, was the original source of the alkaloid quinine, one of the primary treatments of malaria worldwide. Its use for malarial fevers was discovered by native Peurvians and knowledge of its use was spread through Jesuit missionaries. The bark still remains one of the primary sources of quinine today. Two primary forms have been used historically red cinchona (C. succirubra), the description of which is provided here, and yellow cinchona (C....

Storage Substances

Starch Starch consists of water-insoluble, long-chained polysaccharides grouped like crystals around a hilum and forming characteristic granules (Figures 7.15 and 7.16). Starch is widely distributed throughout plant tissues, but is commonly found in highest concentrations in roots, rhizomes, and fruits. Both the presence and structure of starch granules can be important for plant identification. The diagnostic characters of starch granules include size, shape (fairly round, elliptical, angular,...

5 Methoxyhydnocarpin D

If you look out at all the plants here, they all have something to give us some gift it is up to us to learn what it is. Arona Petersen (1908-1995), herbalist, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 1983 Throughout human history, the use of herbal medicines has always been central to all healing systems. Prior to our relatively recent reliance on the isolated, purified, oftentimes synthetic chemical entities dominant in modern medicine today, plants were the primary source of medicines for the...

Serratula spp

Serratula Root Radix Serratulae Pinyin Guang dong sheng ma Serratula is a botanical that is found as an adulterant in the trade of Chinese black cohosh, known as sheng ma (Actaea spp.) and thus may potentially find its way into domestic supplies of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa). A differentiation of the two species is provided under the entry for Actaea racemosa. Serratula is structurally different from Actaea species in that Actaea has no endoder-mis and no secretory ducts. After they are...

Symphytum officinale L

Comfrey Leaf Symphyti officinale Folium Boraginaceae Comfrey leaf has been used by modern herbalists both internally and externally for its putative ability to heal tissues most specifically, internally for stopping bleeding and for mending bones and externally as a salve or compress for wounds, burns, strains, and bruising. Comfrey contains pyrollizidine alkaloids (PAs). Concerns regarding the potential hepatotoxicity of PAs have dramatically curtailed the internal consumption of comfrey and,...

Withania somnfera L Dunal

Withaniae somniferae Radix Sanskrit Ashva-gandha Solanaceae Ashwagandha is among the most highly regarded herbal tonifiers in ayurvedic herbalism. It is considered a tonic, nervine, and adaptogen. In modern research, it has been compared to Panax ginseng for its endurance-enhancing properties. Three primary chemotypes of ashwagandha are traded. Because only one chemotype was used for this characterization, the other chemotypes may differ microscopically from the sample used.

Cephaelis ipecacuanha Brot Rich and Cephaelis acuminata Karsten

Ipecac has a long history of use as an emetic and represents one of the well-established herbal drugs used in modern medicine. Three varieties gray, red, and black have been historically used all are derived from the same species (Maisch 1899). Commercial samples of the root often contain fragments of rhizome and stem, which may be apparent upon microscopic examination of powdered material. Good quality material should consist of approximately 80 root bark by weight (Wall 1909). The stem can be...

Ulmus rubra Muhl

Slippery elm bark is one of the most highly regarded of herbal demulcents among American herbalists. It is used as a rich source of soothing and nourishing mucilage. Unfortunately, slippery elm supplies have been limited by Dutch elm disease. This limited supply has resulted in the adulteration of elm bark with starchy powders such as rice powder. The bark may be traded with the outer bark present or removed (rossed). The outer bark of slippery elm contains little to no mucilage and should be...

Clematis chinensis Retz

Radix Clematidis chinensis Pinyin Wei ling xian Ranunculaceae Clematis is primarily used in traditional Chinese medicine. According to China's pharmacopoeia, Radix Clematidis may consist of the roots and rhizomes of Clematis chinensis Osbeck, Clematis hexapetala Pall., or Clematis manshurica Rupr. These species are mostly traded interchangeably without differentiation. The rhizomes are often in a state of partial decay, with mostly lignified tissues remaining. All roots examined for this...

Basic Plant Structures Subterranean Organs

Subterranean or underground plant parts include roots, rhizomes, corms, tubers, and bulbs all act to anchor the plant to the earth, take up water and nutrients, and distribute and or store nutrients. Some confusion in the identification of underground parts might occur because they can arise from root, stem, or leaf tissue. In addition to being aerial, stems can grow along or under the ground and are called stolons (e.g., Asarum caudatum) or rhizomes (e.g., Actaea racemosa) these two are...

Periploca sepium Bunge

Cortex Periplocae Pinyin Xiang jia pi Periploca sepium is predominantly used in traditional Chinese medicine for arthritic conditions. It is also considered to be a relatively toxic botanical due to the presence of cardioactive properties. It is not commonly included in herbal supplements in the United States. However, it may occur as an adulterant of eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus). For a differentiation of the two species, see entry for eleuthero. Transverse section Broad cork...

Secondary Stems of Dicots and Gymnosperms

Secondary Growth Parthenium Stem

Secondary growth commences with the formation of the vascular cambium, arising first in the vascular bundles and then extending laterally between bundles to form a circumferential ring when viewed in transverse section. Considered in three dimensions, the vascular cambium is an actively dividing cylinder of cells that is bifacial, producing secondary xylem (wood) to the interior and secondary phloem to the exterior and thereby increasing the diameter of the plant axis. In the vascular bundles,...

Cell Wall Structure

Vessel Fibers

All plant cells (except some reproductive cells) have walls composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, proteins, Table 7.1 Summary of Plant Tissues and Their Characteristic Cells Epidermal guard cells, trichomes, sclerenchyma Sieve and companion cells (e.g., albuminous cells), fibers, parenchyma, sclerenchyma Tracheids, vessel members, fibers, parenchyma, sclerenchyma FIGURE 7.10 Shapes of plant cell walls. (a) Isodiametric cell walls (transverse section) (b) elongated cell walls (longitudinal...

Root Epidermis Hypodermis and Cortex

Anomocytic Stomata

The roots of plants are made up of an outer epidermal layer (root bark), a relatively wide middle region of cortex, and an inner core (the stele). The anatomy of the root epidermis is simpler than that of the shoot epidermis. The root epidermis of most angiosperms is made up of root hair cells and nonhair cells arranged in random, regularly spaced, or alternating patterns of these cells. Roots have no stomata (with rare exceptions) and, although cells may form unicellular root hairs (rarely...

Uncaria tomentosa Willd DC

Cortex Uncariae tomentosae Rubiaceae Cat's claw was traditionally used in South America, where it was known as para todo (for all), alluding to its use for a wide variety of ailments. It was introduced in the United States in the early 1990s, whence it gained a reputation as an antiviral. Research suggests it has macrophage-stimu-lating activity. Both root and stem bark of this plant are used. However, due to the relative ecological sensitivity of the plant, there are restrictions on the...

Viburnum opulus L

As the name suggests, cramp bark is commonly used as an antispasmodic, most commonly for menstrual cramps. It has been widely employed by herbalists and naturopathic physicians for menstrual cramps and smooth muscle spasms in general. Cramp bark can be substituted with black haw (Viburnum prunifolium). The two species can be differentiated microscopically. For a more complete microscopic differentiation of the species, see entry for Viburnum prunifolium. Surface view Cork consists of reddish...

Epimedium spp

Epimedium Leaf Folium Epimedii Pinyin Yin yang huo Berberidaceae Epimedium is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a vitalizing tonic, especially for sexual dysfunction, which has given it one of its more common names horny goat weed. The Chinese pharmacopoeia (PPRC 2005) recognizes five different species of Epimedium as interchangeable E. brevicornum Maxim., E. koreanum Nakai, E. pubescens Maxim., E. sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim., and E. wushanense T. S. Ying. These are reported to be...