About the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia

There is no higher religion than human service. To work for the common good is the greatest creed. Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) German theologian, philosopher, physician, and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, 1953 The American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (AHP) is very much a work for the common good. AHP was founded in 1995 as a nonprofit 501(c)(3) educational foundation dedicated to the advancement of knowledge and quality of medicinal herbal products and herbal dietary supplements. The purpose for...

Hedysarum polybotris Hand Mazz

Hedysarum is used in Chinese medicine as an energy tonic and is similar in action to astragalus. However, hedysarum is sometimes used as a substitute for astragalus, and while the two are similar in activity, they may not be medicinally equivalent from an immunomodulatory perspective. Specifically, hedysarum lacks astragaloside IV, a primary immunomodulatory triterpene of Astragalus mongholicus. In hedysarum, fiber bundles are surrounded by parenchymatous cells containing prisms of calcium...

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Ginger Rhizome Zingiberi Rhizoma Pinyin Gan jiang (dry) Sanskrit Shunthi (dry) Ginger is ubiquitously used in almost all systems of herbal medicine, including ayurvedic, Chinese, Western, and Hispanic folk traditions. There are many different cuts, shapes, and forms of ginger. However, the microscopic characteristics of ginger are the same regardless of cut, with one exception In some samples, the outer peel (periderm) may be present or absent (peeled). Transverse section Rhizome is often...

Flowers

Calyx Five teeth epidermal cells of wavy-walled, elongated cells stomata on outer surface only, mainly diacytic with some anomocytic covering trichomes of two types occur (1) as on leaf, up to 1,500 m long (2) short unise-riate, one to five cells, 50-150 m long, on the tip of the calyx teeth these are polymorphic with most cells convex in outline, terminal cell acute, rounded or mucronate, and warty or horizontally striated cuticle. Glandular trichomes of three types occur types (1) and (2) as...

Leaf

Surface view Upper epidermis is composed of cells with sinuous anticlinal walls abundant idioblasts (lith-ocysts) have a circular outline and contain large cysto-liths (up to 70 m in diameter), with wrinkled surface, appear as bright dots on the leaf surface numerous stinging trichomes, with a narrow, parenchymatic, mul-ticellular base and a long and thick-walled terminal cell having a small bulbous apex, overall length of approximately 1-1.5 mm unicellular covering trichomes, up to 350 m in...

Basic Plant Anatomy

The various plant structures or morphologies are composed of cells that are aggregated into tissues (Figure 7.8), which are further arranged into organs (Figure 7.9) together, they form the whole plant (Figure 7.1). The specific cells and tissues that are present specifically, the arrangement of the tissues within the organs provide the key diagnostic microscopic characters. The ability to identify, differentiate, and describe individual plant cells and tissues is important for the botanical...

Microscopic Examination of Unknown Materials

Occasionally, a raw material with an unknown identity is encountered. The microscopic identification of such FIGURE 4.10 Comparison of microscopic characteristics of (a) Hoodia gordonii epidermis and (b) characteristic stone cell of its common adulterant Opuntia spp. (Hoodia image courtesy of Prof. Zhao Zhongzhen, Baptist University, Hong Kong Opuntia image courtesy of Alkemists Pharmaceuticals, Costa Mesa, CA.) FIGURE 4.10 Comparison of microscopic characteristics of (a) Hoodia gordonii...

Grifla frondosa Dicks Fr SF Gray

Maitake Mushroom Fruiting Body (Sporocarp) Maitake is one of the most popularly used of herbal food supplements for immune support while undergoing conventional therapies for cancer. Although some data support this use, well-designed clinical trials are few. Like many of the immune supportive mushrooms, maitake is rich in a polysaccharide beta-glucan fraction known as D-fraction. Both the fruiting body and mycelium biomass of this species are used. This microscopic characterization was...

Stem Tree and Root Barks

Bark is a protective layer that develops in stems and roots during secondary growth. As the vascular cambium produces secondary xylem and phloem, the diameter of the plant axis increases. The primary protective layer the epidermis cannot expand, so expansion is accomplished with the development of a lateral meristem called the cork cambium, or phellogen. In stems, the cork cambium forms as a layer beneath the epidermis. In roots, the cork cambium typically arises in the pericycle. The cells of...

Types of Adulterations Botanical Substitution

One of the most common types of adulterations occurs when one botanical is mistaken or substituted for another. In natural habitats, at point of harvest this can result from FIGURE 3.1 John Uri Lloyd (1849-1936), pharmacist, scientist, inventor, manufacturer, and novelist. His most important contributions were in the field of pharmacy, pharmaceutical extraction, plant chemistry, and pharmacognosy, with pioneering work in colloidal chemistry. Because of his allegiance to the Eclectic medical...

Drawings

Leaf transverse section upper epidermis (ue) with a covering trichome (ctr), palisade parenchyma (pal) occurring in two cell layers, spongy mesophyll (sm) with large intercellular spaces, vascular bundle (vb), large cluster crystal (crys), and lower epidermis (le). 2. Leaf upper epidermis showing cuticular striations and anisocytic stomata (sv). 3. Leaf lower epidermis showing cuticular striations and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, which are more frequent than on the upper epidermis (sv). 4....

Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz

Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae Pinyin Bai zhu Bai-zhu atractylodes is predominantly used in traditional Chinese herbalism specifically, as a tonifier for the digestive system to improve digestion and assimilation. There are various species and forms of atractylodes. Some can easily be distinguished microscopically from each other, but others cannot be. Complete microscopic differentiation of the species in the English language is lacking. Transverse section Thin cork a conspicuous layer of...

Ganoderma lucidum curtis Fr P Karst

Reishi Mushroom (Sporocarp) Pinyin Ling zhi Ganoderma lucidum, more commonly known by its Japanese name of reishi, is one of the most highly regarded botanicals of traditional Chinese herbalism. It possesses a broad range of beneficial actions on the cardiovascular, hepatic, and immune systems. Reishi mushroom is commonly found in immune supportive formulas for general health purposes and for those undergoing conventional therapies for cancer. The many different varieties and forms of Ganoderma...

Info

Scientific and Applied Pharmacognosy. Pharmacognosy is essentially the study of raw materials and the products manufactured from them.In a narrow sense pharmacognosy embraces the study of medicinal plants and their crude products commonly designated as drugs. Richard Wasicky (1929), professor of pharmacognosy, Vienna Describes pharmacognosy as a biologic and experimental science .not only microscopic, but including chemical, chromatographic, biological methods Alexander Tschirch (1856 1939),...

Case History of Adulteration Mistaken Identity of Hoodia gordonii

The succulent hoodia provides a good example of the microscopy challenge that can arise when authoritative standards are not available. Based on the promise of an elixir for weight loss, the hoodia cactus entered into commercial trade where it quickly became one of the most prevalent botanicals sold in the marketplace. Hoodia is a species native to Africa protected under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) therefore, all material traded internationally has to be...

Differentiation of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna

Although the fruits of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna are most widely used, other species, such as the Washington hawthorn (C. phaenopyrum), as well as other closely related species, may be used. Differences between the two primary species are of little practical importance from a medicinal perspective, though there are more supportive scientific data on hawthorn leaf and flower. Seed number is the best differentiating character between the species, although it is not absolute C....

Eleutherococcus senticosus Rupr Maxim Maxim

Eleuthero Root and Rhizome (Siberian Ginseng) Eleuthero, more commonly known as Siberian ginseng, is a member of the ginseng family Araliaceae and was once botanically classified as Acanthopanax or thorny ginseng. It continues to be cited as Acanthopanax throughout most of Asia. Like Panax species plants, eleuthero is used as an adaptogenic tonic and is one of the most widely researched adaptogens in the world. Eleuthero may be used interchangeably with a number of the other 34 species of...

Frangula purshiana Dc J G cooper syn Rhamnus purshiana Dc

Cascara Sagrada Bark Cortex Frangulae purshianae Rhamnaceae Cascara sagrada is one of the most widely used botanical laxatives in North America. Formerly named Rhamnus, cascara contains anthraquinone glycosides and is closely related to other anthraquinone-containing botanicals such as frangula (aka buckthorn F. alnus). The various species of Frangula may get confused in trade and can be distinguished histologically. F. alnus lacks sclereids and the medullary rays do not converge at the outer...

Use of Authoritative Microscopic Characterizations

Over the more than 170 years since Schleiden declared that the cell was the fundamental unit in plants, microscopy has been applied to plant materials and thousands of microscopic characterizations have been developed for the botanicals used in ayurvedic, Chinese, Egyptian, and Western herbal medicine. This is good news for quality control personnel because they do not need to reinvent the microscopic wheel in developing their own microscopic characterizations. Microscopic characterization is...

Illicium verum J D Hook

Star Anise Fruit (Chinese Star Anise) Star anise fruits are used in herbal teas in different parts of the world for the treatment of colic and appear to be relatively safe. However, I. verum is sometimes adulterated with a Japanese species of Illicium I. anisatum that is also known as Japanese star anise or shikimi. I. anisatum has been associated with seizures in infants to whom the tea was given. This adulteration has occurred at least since 1881.

Preparation of Powders Milling and Sieving

For examination of powdered material, a dried plant sample is first milled to a consistent size. Depending on the equipment available, the powder can be ground to an appropriate size in a mill that has a sieve attached or milled in a standard grinder and sifted after grinding. Sieve sizes are identified according to their mesh aperture size (millimeter and micron). In the past, sieves were sized according to the number of holes per square inch (e.g., five holes per square inch), but today they...

Stephania tetrandra S Moore

Radix Stephaniae tetrandrae Pinyin Han fang ji, fang ji The roots of Stephania tetrandra are used almost exclusively in traditional Chinese medicine, predominantly for their ability to drain dampness. The common name for Stephania in Chinese pinyin is fang ji or, more specifically, han fang ji. This shares the common name of fang ji or, more specifically, guang fang ji, with Aristolochia fangchi, a botanical that contains the nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids (AAs). Stephania does...

V

i-3f,a* tVi A 'J frA'f Va FIGURE 7.11 Primary and secondary cell wall structures. (a) Fibers of Uncaria tomentosa stem showing primary wall and superimposed secondary cell wall (bluish outline) (b) Actaea racemosa root parenchyma showing cells with secondary walls (transverse section). (Images courtesy of Prof. Dr. Reinhard L nger, AGES PharmMed, Vienna, Austria.) FIGURE 7.11 Primary and secondary cell wall structures. (a) Fibers of Uncaria tomentosa stem showing primary wall and superimposed...

Rauvolfia serpentina L Benth ex Kurz

Rauvolfiae Radix Sanskrit Sarpagandha Rauwolfia is native to India, Pakistan, Burma, Thailand, and Indonesia, among other regions. In India it was traditionally used for conditions ranging from snakebite and mania to epilepsy. Rauvolfia yields the hypotensive and sedative reserpine-group alkaloids. Transverse section Cork has a stratified appearance consisting of alternating narrow tangential bands of radially narrow nonlignified cells and radially broad lignified cells phelloderm with starch...

Rhizome

Transverse section Bark is scalloped in outline, with convex areas aligned with the secondary xylem and concavities aligned with medullary rays thin cork consists of narrow bands of red-brown parenchyma alternating with bands of colorless parenchyma tangentially elongated groups of fibers occur interior to the cork and exterior to the secondary phloem these groups are separated by parenchyma outside the medullary rays, fibers are replaced by sclereids secondary xylem consists of cuneiform...

Quantitative Microscopy

In addition to measuring the size of cells and tissues with the eyepiece or stage micrometers, a number of other quantitative values are utilized for the microscopic evaluation of botanicals (predominantly leaves). These include palisade ratios, vein islet and stomatal numbers, and sto-matal index Palisade ratios. The palisade ratio is the average number of palisade cells that occur beneath an epidermal cell. The palisade ratio of many plants remains constant regardless of geographical location...

Microscope Slides

For observing plant tissues with a microscope, the sample being viewed must be placed on a glass slide so that light FIGURE 5.14 Using a drawing tube for documenting cellular structures. The structure (a) is viewed to scale (b). The drawing tube allows the microscopist to view the structure and pencil simultaneously through the oculars (c) and trace the structure onto the drawing surface (d-f). (Images courtesy of Prof. Dr. Reinhard L nger, AGES PharmMed, Vienna, Austria.) FIGURE 5.14 Using a...

Terminalia bellerica Gaertn Roxb

Bellericae myrobalani Fructus Sanskrit Bibhitaki Belleric myrobalan, more commonly referred to in the herb trade by the names behada or bibhitaki, is an ingredient in the most widely used formula of ayurvedic medicine the three-fruit combination triphala, which consists of behada with amla (Phyllanthus emblica) and harada (Terminalia chebula). The three fruits are often sold combined. Although the quality of the fruits can vary substantially, the identity is typically correct. Fruits are traded...

Terminalia chebula Retz

Chebulic myrobalan, more commonly referred to in the herb trade by the names harada or haritaki, is an ingredient in the most widely used formula of ayurvedic medicine the three-fruit combination triphala, which consists of harada with amla (Phyllanthus emblica) and behada (Terminalia bellerica). The three fruits are often sold combined. Although the quality of the fruits can vary substantially, the identity is typically correct. Fruits are traded in whole form and with the seed removed. This...

Different Sections Different Views

Anatomical characteristics that are used for identification of plant parts are located either on the surface or in the inner tissues of the plant part. If the structures are on the surface, as is typical of delicate leaves and floral structures, and the material is thin enough to allow for light to pass through, no sectioning is required and the sample can be cleared and viewed (see Surface View section). Materials rich in thermolabile compounds that can be destroyed when exposed to heat, such...

Mentha x piperita L

Peppermint Leaf Menthae piperitae Folium Sanskrit Pudina Peppermint has been used for centuries as a beverage, in food products, and in perfumeries. It is one of the most popular of all herbal teas and is used medicinally for its diaphoretic and carminative properties. The wide variety of mints on the commercial market may get confused with each other, though the universal familiarity of peppermint greatly reduces the chances for adulteration. Surface view The upper epidermis consists of cells...

Botanical Reference Materials

In good manufacturing practices (GMPs) for the production of dietary supplements as well as various FDA guidance documents (e.g., FDA 1999), considerable attention FIGURE 4.11 Examples of leaf stomata characteristic of specific plant families. (a) Paracytic (Senna alexandrina Fabaceae) (b) diacytic (Melissa officinalis Lamiaceae) (c) anisocytic (Datura stramonium Solanaceae). (Images courtesy of Prof. Dr. Reinhard L nger, AGES PharmMed, Vienna, Austria.) is paid to the use of reference...

Plants

Basic Mushroom Plant Structure

A great number and diversity of forms exist within the plant kingdom. Living land plants are generally divided FIGURE 6.1 Examples of edible and medicinal seaweed, fungi, and lichen. (a) Dulse seaweed (Palmaria palmata) (b) Irish moss seaweed (Chondrus crispus) (c) Kelp seaweed (Laminaria spp.) (d) maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa). (Photographs courtesy of American Herbal Pharmacopoeia .) FIGURE 6.1 Examples of edible and medicinal seaweed, fungi, and lichen. (a) Dulse seaweed (Palmaria...

Contents

Foreword by Norman R. xxi About the Editors, Authors, and AHP Botanical Microscopy About Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines xxxv SECTION 1 Introduction to Botanical Microscopy Chapter 1 Classical Botanical Pharmacognosy From Dioscorides to Modern Herbal Chapter 2 What's in a Name Nomenclature of Botanical Materials 31 Chapter 3 To Be or Not To Be A Focus on Botanical Adulteration 43 Chapter 4 Microscopy for Identification of Botanical Raw Materials Uses and Chapter 5 Setting Up...

Ligulate Floret

Surface view Pistillate short corolla tube, with limb prolonged on one side into a three-toothed ligule abaxial epidermal cells are slightly elongated with sinuous anticlinal walls adaxial epidermal cells more or less quadratic in outline, papillose obvious cuticular striations on both sides biseriate glandular trichomes frequently on corolla tube style and cypsela are similar to those of disk florets. Powder Intact disk florets numerous pollen grains with spiny exine fragments of involucral...

Ephedra sinica Stapf Ephedra equisetina Bunge E intermedia

Ephedra is one of the primary herbal decongestants used worldwide. It formed the basis of ephedrine-based pharmaceuticals and continues to be used for this purpose today. Due to concerns over the misuse of concentrated ephedrine products for weight loss and athletic performance, ephedra for use as a dietary supplement ingredient has been banned. According to the Chinese pharmacopoeia (PPRC 2005), three species of Ephedra are accepted interchangeably as Herba Ephedrae E. sinica Stapf, E....

Illicium anisatum L Shikimi Fruit

Species of Illicium are used for the treatment of colic in infants and children. The primary species used is Chinese star anise, I. verum. However, shikimi fruits, also known as Japanese star anise, have adulterated the I. verum market since at least 1881 and have been associated with causing seizures in children. With standard light microscopy, the anatomy of shikimi fruit is extremely similar to that of star anise except for differences in the palisade cells of the endocarp, astrosclereids of...

Ginkgo biloba L

Ginkgo Leaf Folium Ginkgo Ginkgoaceae The extract of ginkgo leaves is one of the most widely used and well researched of all herbal products worldwide. Numerous studies report on its ability to enhance peripheral circulation, improve mental acuity, and even slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Throughout most of the world, the proprietary ginkgo extract used in most studies EGb 761 (Schwabe Germany) is an approved pharmaceutical. Ginkgo leaves are so widely cultivated and characteristic...

About the Editors Authors and Associates

John Heywood (1497-1580), English playwright and poet Roy Upton, herbalist, has been working and practicing professionally as an herbalist since 1981. Trained in ayurvedic, Chinese, Caribbean, and Western herbal medicine traditions, Roy is the founder, executive director, and editor of the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia is cofounder, past president, and current vice president of the American Herbalists Guild (AHG) and serves on the General Chapters Committee of the United States Pharmacopeia...

Cinchona succirubra Pav ex Klotzsch syn C pubescens Vahl

The bark of the cinchona tree, also known as Peruvian bark, was the original source of the alkaloid quinine, one of the primary treatments of malaria worldwide. Its use for malarial fevers was discovered by native Peurvians and knowledge of its use was spread through Jesuit missionaries. The bark still remains one of the primary sources of quinine today. Two primary forms have been used historically red cinchona (C. succirubra), the description of which is provided here, and yellow cinchona (C....

Conclusion

Macrosclereids

An in-depth understanding of the cells that make up the various plant parts, the structures of those cells, and the contents of the cell is critical to conducting a microscopic evaluation of both known and unknown plants. The following chapters describe in detail the development of cells into their respective tissues and plant parts, as well as their diagnostic application when a microscopic evaluation is conducted. FIGuRE 7.21 Fibers with and without slit-like pits shown in transverse and...

Storage Substances

Starch Starch consists of water-insoluble, long-chained polysaccharides grouped like crystals around a hilum and forming characteristic granules (Figures 7.15 and 7.16). Starch is widely distributed throughout plant tissues, but is commonly found in highest concentrations in roots, rhizomes, and fruits. Both the presence and structure of starch granules can be important for plant identification. The diagnostic characters of starch granules include size, shape (fairly round, elliptical, angular,...

5 Methoxyhydnocarpin D

If you look out at all the plants here, they all have something to give us some gift it is up to us to learn what it is. Arona Petersen (1908-1995), herbalist, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 1983 Throughout human history, the use of herbal medicines has always been central to all healing systems. Prior to our relatively recent reliance on the isolated, purified, oftentimes synthetic chemical entities dominant in modern medicine today, plants were the primary source of medicines for the...

Serratula spp

Serratula Root Radix Serratulae Pinyin Guang dong sheng ma Serratula is a botanical that is found as an adulterant in the trade of Chinese black cohosh, known as sheng ma (Actaea spp.) and thus may potentially find its way into domestic supplies of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa). A differentiation of the two species is provided under the entry for Actaea racemosa. Serratula is structurally different from Actaea species in that Actaea has no endoder-mis and no secretory ducts. After they are...

Symphytum officinale L

Comfrey Leaf Symphyti officinale Folium Boraginaceae Comfrey leaf has been used by modern herbalists both internally and externally for its putative ability to heal tissues most specifically, internally for stopping bleeding and for mending bones and externally as a salve or compress for wounds, burns, strains, and bruising. Comfrey contains pyrollizidine alkaloids (PAs). Concerns regarding the potential hepatotoxicity of PAs have dramatically curtailed the internal consumption of comfrey and,...

Withania somnfera L Dunal

Withaniae somniferae Radix Sanskrit Ashva-gandha Solanaceae Ashwagandha is among the most highly regarded herbal tonifiers in ayurvedic herbalism. It is considered a tonic, nervine, and adaptogen. In modern research, it has been compared to Panax ginseng for its endurance-enhancing properties. Three primary chemotypes of ashwagandha are traded. Because only one chemotype was used for this characterization, the other chemotypes may differ microscopically from the sample used.

Cephaelis ipecacuanha Brot Rich and Cephaelis acuminata Karsten

Ipecac has a long history of use as an emetic and represents one of the well-established herbal drugs used in modern medicine. Three varieties gray, red, and black have been historically used all are derived from the same species (Maisch 1899). Commercial samples of the root often contain fragments of rhizome and stem, which may be apparent upon microscopic examination of powdered material. Good quality material should consist of approximately 80 root bark by weight (Wall 1909). The stem can be...

Ulmus rubra Muhl

Slippery elm bark is one of the most highly regarded of herbal demulcents among American herbalists. It is used as a rich source of soothing and nourishing mucilage. Unfortunately, slippery elm supplies have been limited by Dutch elm disease. This limited supply has resulted in the adulteration of elm bark with starchy powders such as rice powder. The bark may be traded with the outer bark present or removed (rossed). The outer bark of slippery elm contains little to no mucilage and should be...

Clematis chinensis Retz

Radix Clematidis chinensis Pinyin Wei ling xian Ranunculaceae Clematis is primarily used in traditional Chinese medicine. According to China's pharmacopoeia, Radix Clematidis may consist of the roots and rhizomes of Clematis chinensis Osbeck, Clematis hexapetala Pall., or Clematis manshurica Rupr. These species are mostly traded interchangeably without differentiation. The rhizomes are often in a state of partial decay, with mostly lignified tissues remaining. All roots examined for this...

Basic Plant Structures Subterranean Organs

Subterranean or underground plant parts include roots, rhizomes, corms, tubers, and bulbs all act to anchor the plant to the earth, take up water and nutrients, and distribute and or store nutrients. Some confusion in the identification of underground parts might occur because they can arise from root, stem, or leaf tissue. In addition to being aerial, stems can grow along or under the ground and are called stolons (e.g., Asarum caudatum) or rhizomes (e.g., Actaea racemosa) these two are...

Periploca sepium Bunge

Cortex Periplocae Pinyin Xiang jia pi Periploca sepium is predominantly used in traditional Chinese medicine for arthritic conditions. It is also considered to be a relatively toxic botanical due to the presence of cardioactive properties. It is not commonly included in herbal supplements in the United States. However, it may occur as an adulterant of eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus). For a differentiation of the two species, see entry for eleuthero. Transverse section Broad cork...

Secondary Stems of Dicots and Gymnosperms

Secondary growth commences with the formation of the vascular cambium, arising first in the vascular bundles and then extending laterally between bundles to form a circumferential ring when viewed in transverse section. Considered in three dimensions, the vascular cambium is an actively dividing cylinder of cells that is bifacial, producing secondary xylem (wood) to the interior and secondary phloem to the exterior and thereby increasing the diameter of the plant axis. In the vascular bundles,...

Cell Wall Structure

All plant cells (except some reproductive cells) have walls composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, proteins, Table 7.1 Summary of Plant Tissues and Their Characteristic Cells Epidermal guard cells, trichomes, sclerenchyma Sieve and companion cells (e.g., albuminous cells), fibers, parenchyma, sclerenchyma Tracheids, vessel members, fibers, parenchyma, sclerenchyma FIGURE 7.10 Shapes of plant cell walls. (a) Isodiametric cell walls (transverse section) (b) elongated cell walls (longitudinal...

Root Epidermis Hypodermis and Cortex

Anomocytic Stomata

The roots of plants are made up of an outer epidermal layer (root bark), a relatively wide middle region of cortex, and an inner core (the stele). The anatomy of the root epidermis is simpler than that of the shoot epidermis. The root epidermis of most angiosperms is made up of root hair cells and nonhair cells arranged in random, regularly spaced, or alternating patterns of these cells. Roots have no stomata (with rare exceptions) and, although cells may form unicellular root hairs (rarely...

Uncaria tomentosa Willd DC

Cortex Uncariae tomentosae Rubiaceae Cat's claw was traditionally used in South America, where it was known as para todo (for all), alluding to its use for a wide variety of ailments. It was introduced in the United States in the early 1990s, whence it gained a reputation as an antiviral. Research suggests it has macrophage-stimu-lating activity. Both root and stem bark of this plant are used. However, due to the relative ecological sensitivity of the plant, there are restrictions on the...

Viburnum opulus L

As the name suggests, cramp bark is commonly used as an antispasmodic, most commonly for menstrual cramps. It has been widely employed by herbalists and naturopathic physicians for menstrual cramps and smooth muscle spasms in general. Cramp bark can be substituted with black haw (Viburnum prunifolium). The two species can be differentiated microscopically. For a more complete microscopic differentiation of the species, see entry for Viburnum prunifolium. Surface view Cork consists of reddish...

Epimedium spp

Epimedium Leaf Folium Epimedii Pinyin Yin yang huo Berberidaceae Epimedium is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a vitalizing tonic, especially for sexual dysfunction, which has given it one of its more common names horny goat weed. The Chinese pharmacopoeia (PPRC 2005) recognizes five different species of Epimedium as interchangeable E. brevicornum Maxim., E. koreanum Nakai, E. pubescens Maxim., E. sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim., and E. wushanense T. S. Ying. These are reported to be...

Georgina Jolliffe BPharm PhD CChem MRSC 19232010

To give pleasure to a single heart by a single act is better than a thousand heads bowing in prayer. Dr. Georgina Jolliffe with her husband Dr. Geoffrey Jolliffe on Geoffrey's 80th birthday 2008 . Dr. Georgina Jolliffe, who served as a technical editor for this text, passed away before she could enjoy the fruits of her labor. According to her husband Geoffrey, Georgina worked on this text for the sheer love of it. Georgina was fondly remembered by many students, friends, and family members as a...

Images

Uniseriate covering trichome on the leaf upper surface showing the transparent terminal region. 2. Covering and glandular trichomes on the leaf lower surface. 3. Covering trichomes along a vein on the leaf lower surface. 4. Green secretory ducts in a leaf, situated along veins sv . 5. Covering trichomes from a phyllary. 6. Trichome composed of numerous short cells on the margin of a phyllary. 7. Pappus bristles of a disk floret. 8. Glandular trichome of a cypsela.

Caulophyllum thalictroides L Michx

Rhizoma et Radix Caulophylli Berberidaceae Blue cohosh is one of the primary uterine tonics, uterine antispasmodics, and smooth muscle relaxants used in Western herbalism. It is commonly used as a partus pre-parator, a substance used in the last 6 weeks of pregnancy to help prepare for birth. It is also used to promote efficient uterine contractions during birth. In recent years, concern regarding its use for these purposes has been raised. There are no reported adulterants of blue cohosh.

Clematis armandii Franch

Armand's clematis is primarily used in traditional Chinese medicine as a form of mu tong, originally derived from Akebia spp. This species of clematis is also cited as an alternate species to Clematis chinensis wei ling xian . According to China's pharmacopoeia PPRC 2005 , Caulis Clematidis armandii may consist of the stems of either Clematis armandii Franch. or Clematis montana Buch.-Ham. It should be sold with the outer bark removed. Historically, C. armandii and C. montana both called chuan...

Oplopanax horridus Sm

Devil's club is native to North America and is abundant in old-growth forests of Oregon, Washington, and many parts of Canada and Alaska. Among Native Americans, it is considered a sacred and very powerful medicine both physically and ritualistically. It is a member of the ginseng Araliaceae family and is considered by many to have adaptogenic properties similar to Panax species plants, though substantiation for this is lacking. Transverse section Cork, phelloderm with angular collenchyma...

Sch Leiden

FIGURE 1.7 In 1838, German botanist and professor of natural sciences Jena Mathias Jacob Schleiden announced that the cell was the fundamental unit in plants. From Robinson, V. 1912. Pathfinders in Medicine. Illustration courtesy of Lloyd Library, Cincinnati, OH. species. In addition to its utility in determining plant part identity, botanical microscopy was widely used to identify adulterating species, detect the presence of contaminants, and even assess the relative quality of a plant drug...

Primary Stems of Dicots and Gymnosperms

The outermost protective layer of green primary herbaceous stems is an epidermis with stomata for gas exchange. In dicots and gymnosperms, an outer cortex and inner pith can be distinguished. The cortex is the area between the epidermis and the outermost cell layer of the stele. The stele contains the vascular tissue and, in the very center, the pith. The cortex is largely parenchy-matous, but may contain collenchyma directly inside the epidermis or sclerenchyma. In the stele, the vascular...

Frangula alnus Mill syn Rhamnus frangula L

More commonly known in the herbal trade as buckthorn, Frangula has a long history of use as a purging laxative. Formerly named Rhamnus, frangula contains anthraqui-none glycosides and is closely related to other anthraqui-none-containing botanicals such as cascara sagrada F. purshiana . The various species of Frangula may get confused in trade and can be distinguished histologically. F. alnus lacks sclereids and the medullary rays do not converge at the outer end, whereas F. purshiana does...

Chamaemelum nobile L

Roman chamomile has been used since ancient times as a general herbal digestive and for its anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, and antispasmodic effects. Varieties of Roman chamomile that have predominantly pistillate ray florets are used in commerce. Because of the names and similar uses, Roman chamomile can be mixed with or substituted for German chamomile, Matricaria recutita. The two flowers can be readily distinguished from each other. Capitulum Ligulate, with ray florets only, or occasionally...

Differentiation of Echinacea Species and Parthenium integrifolium

The arrangement of the xylem tissue can be used for the microscopic differentiation of E. purpurea from the other Echinacea species and Parthenium integrifo-lium if unmilled material is available for examination L nger 2001 . In transverse section, E. purpurea has the xylem arranged in large cuneiform regions in the root and in a solid ring in the rhizome, compared to the many narrow radial bands of xylem tissue found in the roots of the other species in question. Conclusive microscopic...

Plantago lanceolata L

English Plantain Leaf Lance-Leafed Plantain Plantaginis lanceolatae Folium Plantaginaceae The leaves of plantain are commonly used as a garden and wilderness first-aid plant applied to cuts, scratches, burns, and bites. It is also taken to stop internal bleeding and used externally in compresses and salves. Two primary types of plantain are commonly used lance- or narrow-leafed and broad-leafed P. major plantain. These can be used interchangeably. Plantain has occasionally been known to be...

Pharmacopoeial Standards

Pharmacopoeial standards outline a very specific set of identity and purity tests and establish minimum quality standards to which an herbal drug must adhere. Pharmacopoeias of different countries differ on the development of these standards based on both philosophical grounds and readily available analytical methodologies. Minimally included are sets of identity tests that consist of classical pharmacognosy assessment methodologies, including macroscopic, organoleptic, and microscopic...

Melissa officinalis L

Lemon Balm Leaf Melissae Folium Lamiaceae Lemon balm is a delicious lemony-tasting botanical that is widely used for colic, restlessness, teething, and fever in children. It is also used as a mood elevator, antidepressant, and relaxing diaphoretic in adults, among many other uses. In Europe, a balm made from the essential oil-rich leaves is also used topically as an antiviral for the treatment of oral herpes. Although the leaves of lemon balm are not readily subject to adulteration, whole-plant...

Identification of Fruits and Seeds

Chopped material Fruit and seed material are readily identifiable in chopped form. Some of the primary characteristics to examine in fruits include the epidermis, the presence or absence of trichomes, characteristics of the sclerenchymatous tissue, the presence and characteristics of secretory tissues, cell content particularly calcium oxalate and starch , and the characteristics of the endo-dermis. In seeds, some of the primary characteristics to FIGURE 9.11 Spiny and smooth tricoloporate...

Terminology

Abaxial Located away from or on the opposite side of the axis of an organ e.g., lower epidermis of a leaf cf. adaxial . Achene A single-seeded fruit dry, not opening when ripe, pericarp and testa connate or tightly compressed e.g., Echinacea syn. cypsela . Acicular crystals Needle-like crystals usually occurring in groups syn. raphides . Acuminate Tapering to a fine point. Adaxial Located toward the axis or surface of an organ e.g., upper epidermis of a leaf cf. abaxial . Aerenchyma Plant...

Meristematic Tissues

A meristem is an embryonic tissue primarily responsible for producing more cells that support the growth of the organism. Dicots and gymnosperms have primary and secondary plant bodies that are formed from different meristematic tissues. The primary plant body refers to the plant prior to the commencement of woody or secondary growth. Apical meristems occur at the terminal ends of roots and shoots and build the primary plant body. The outermost cells of the root are constantly being worn away...

Panax ginseng c A

Asian Ginseng Root Cultivated, Unprocessed Pinyin Ren shen, yuan shen, shan shen wild Asian ginseng is one of the most highly regarded of energizing tonics in the entire Chinese materia medica. It has also become one of the most popularly used of all herbal tonifiers in the West and has been incorprated into myriad products from traditional foods to dietary supplements, textiles, and cosmetics. There are various forms and qualities of Asian ginseng, including wild shan shen , cultivated yuan...

Digitalis purpurea L

Species of Digitalis were used by English herbalists and led to the discovery of the cardioactive glycoside digoxin used in medicine today. The English botanist and physician William Withering is credited with identifying digitalis as the active ingredient of a traditional herbal preparation for the treatment of dropsy congestive heart failure . Withering's identification was made after a meticulous microscopic examination of the herbal mixture. His use of Digitalis for the treatment of...

Major Tissue Types of Vascular Plants

Vascular plants have three basic tissue types ground tissue including parenchyma, sclerenchyma, collenchyma , vascular tissue xylem, phloem , and dermal tissue e.g., epidermis, bark . All of these tissue types arise from mer-istems small regions of undifferentiated cells in which most cell division takes place. Shoots and roots have apical meristems that produce primary growth secondary growth of wood or bark arises from a cambium a later developing meristematic layer one cell thick. Parenchyma...

Categories of Light Microscopes The Stereo Microscope

The stereo microscope is a valuable tool for general magnification of botanical materials as well as sample selection and preparation of plant sections Figure 5.1 hence, the alternative name of dissecting microscope. A stereo microscope comprises two compound microscopes that focus on an object from different angles, providing a three-dimensional view of the item. The image is upright, showing the true right and left, in contrast to the upside down and reversed image that is seen through a...

Specificity of Microscopy

Botanical microscopy is also especially valuable in detecting admixtures of inorganic materials not detectable with standard chemical assessment, such as the presence of dirt mixed in with root material. Similarly, microscopy can also detect when two different parts of the same plant are present. For example, the chemical profile of goldenseal Hydrastis canadensis root and leaf is very similar, so contamination of the desired root material with leaf can easily escape detection with standard...

Atropa belladonna L

Belladonna Leaf Folium Belladonnae Solanaceae Belladonna, commonly known as deadly nightshade, has been used medicinally for centuries. Although it is not generally found in herbal dietary supplements because of its potential for toxicity, it was historically highly regarded as among the most effective of herbal gastrointestinal antispasmodics Weiss 1988 . The crude botanical consists of the flowering ends of the twigs. Therefore pieces of stem and the highly characteristic seeds are present in...

Epidermis of Stem Leaf and Sepal

Rubiaceous Stomata

The epidermis is the outermost cell layer of a plant and serves as protection against uncontrolled evaporation and attack by microbes and herbivores. On stems and roots, the primary epidermis is replaced by cork during secondary growth. The epidermis of roots differs from that of shoots stems, leaves, reproductive organs in terms of both developmental origin and structure and is therefore treated separately. Root epidermis is not often seen in medicinal plant material because older roots in...

Datura stramonium L

Jimson Weed Leaf Folium stramonii Solanaceae Jimson weed is a very toxic plant that has been used medicinally for centuries, primarily as a topical agent but also for internal purposes. This and other species of Datura contain atropine-like alkaloids specifically, hyoscine. It is not used in herbal supplements and is rarely used in the practice of modern herbalists. Surface view Epidermal cell walls are sinuous or straight over main veins anisocytic or occasionally ano-mocytic stomata occur on...

Tussilago farfara L

Coltsfoot Leaf Folium Farfarae Asteraceae Coltsfoot has been commonly used in Western herbal medicine for upper respiratory congestion. There is a potential for it to be mixed with Western coltsfoot, Petasites spp. Both species contain pyrollizidine alkaloids PAs . The two species can be differentiated microscopically. Surface view Upper epidermis of polygonal cells with dense cuticular striations and large anomocytic stomata 35 m long the density of the indumentum on the upper surface varies...

Microscopic Sleuthing

Digitalis Adulteration

In 1775, British botanist and physician William Withering 1741-1799 Figure 1.12 was asked his opinion of a family herbal recipe for dropsy edema , consisting of approximately 20 botanicals, used by a Shropshire herbalist, Mrs. Hutton. Presumably, Mrs. Hutton's secret formula was succeeding, whereas treatment by conventional physicians was failing Withering 1785 . Withering laboriously separated the leaf fragments of the prescription and identified fragments of Digitalis leaves through...

Senna alexandrina Mill

Transverse Section Senna Alata Leaf

Senna leaf is one of the primary botanical laxatives used worldwide. It is rich in anthroquinone glycosides, which are compounds hydrolyzed in the intestines that subsequently stimulate intestinal peristalsis. Numerous species of senna can be used interchangeably and various works of botanical microscopy provide a differentiation between the species. Surface view Upper and lower epidermis are very similar cells are polygonal and elongated over the veins, and some cells filled with mucilage are...

Leaves

The leaves of higher plants are typically responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient assimilation, gas exchange, and transpiration. Assimilation takes place in the chlorenchyma of the palisade layer, and gas exchange and transpiration are facilitated by the spongy parenchyma and controlled by the stomata. A typical leaf contains the following layers when viewed in transverse section cuticle waxy layer on leaf surface , upper epidermis adaxial surface , palisade layer one or several cell rows ,...

Microscopic Characterization Of Botanical Medicines

American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Scotts Valley, CA American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Scotts Valley, CA Georgina Jolliffe, Pharm PhD, CChem, MRSC Professor Emeritus, University of London, London, UK Elizabeth Williamson, BSc, PhD, MRPharmS, FLS Elizabeth Williamson, BSc, PhD, MRPharmS, FLS American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Scotts Valley, CA Taylor amp Francis Group Boca Raton London New York Taylor amp Francis Group Boca Raton London New York Taylor c Francis Group, an informa business 6000 Broken Sound...

Microscopic Differentiation of the Leaves of Coltsfoot Tussilago farfara and Arctic Butterbur P frigidus

Coltsfoot may be adulterated with leaf material of various species from the genus Petasites, such as Arctic butterbur P. frigidus and purple butterbur P. hybridus . Coltsfoot and Arctic butterbur leaves can be difficult to distinguish macroscopically in cut leaf material, but are readily discernible using microscopy. Microscopic Differentiation of Tussilago and Petasites leaves Biseriate glandular trichomes up to 600 jm long, may be rare Irregularly shaped with sinuous walls Aerenchyma with...

Bacopa monnieri L Pennell syn Bacopa monnieria L Wettstein

Bacopa Aerial Parts Herba bacopae Pinyin Jia ma chi xian Sanskrit Brahmi Bacopa is one of the most highly esteemed herbs of ayurvedic medicine of India it is also recognized in the Chinese materia medica. Its most prominent use in the West is based on its putative effects in enhancing cognitive functions this function is supported by numerous clinical and preclinical studies. Bacopa shares the common Sanskrit name of brahmi with another commonly used Indian herb known in the West as gotu kola...

Curcuma longa L

Turmeric Rhizome Rhizoma Curcumae longae Pinyin Jiang huang Sanskrit Haridra Turmeric is native to India, where it was originally used to preserve foods and as a culinary spice. It is also widely used to promote digestive health and is applied externally for the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. In the last few decades, turmeric has emerged as one of the most scientifically researched of all botanicals for a wide range of indications from antioxidant and antihepatotoxic activity to...

Nonprotoplasmic Ergastic Cell Contents

Cluster Raphides From Crystal Cells

Calcium Oxalate Many plants detoxify soluble oxalic acid as insoluble calcium salts. Calcium oxalate crystallizes in characteristic forms these shapes can be very important for diagnostic purposes Figures 7.12 and 7.13 . The exact crystallographic forms of these crystals are determined by measuring their angles. This is difficult and many technical and nontechnical terms are used to describe them. Calcium oxalate crystals are birefractive birefringent , which makes them visible in polarized...