Leaf

Surface view: Upper epidermis is composed of cells with sinuous anticlinal walls; abundant idioblasts (lith-ocysts) have a circular outline and contain large cysto-liths (up to 70 ^m in diameter), with wrinkled surface, appear as bright dots on the leaf surface; numerous stinging trichomes, with a narrow, parenchymatic, mul-ticellular base and a long and thick-walled terminal cell having a small bulbous apex, overall length of approximately 1-1.5 mm; unicellular covering trichomes, up to 350 ^m in length, are swollen at the base, tapering, wall thickened (frequently secondarily), cuticle smooth or warted, occurring predominantly along the leaf margin; glandular trichomes with unicellular stalk and mostly a bicellular glandular head, sometimes one- or four-celled head occurring predominantly along the veins; stomata are usually absent; lower epidermis with numerous ano-mocytic stomata 20-30 ^m in length; lithocysts are frequent; glandular trichomes are scattered over the surface,

covering trichomes along the veins; stinging trichomes may be present.

Transverse section: Bifacial; palisade cells in a single row; lithocysts are larger than epidermal cells, roundish, elliptical, or ovoid cystoliths; cystoliths on both sides of the leaf are well developed.

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