Rhizome

Transverse section: Epidermis of polygonal cells; stele with irregularly scattered collateral bundles oriented in various directions, often in longitudinal view toward the exterior; inconspicuous endodermis, with crowded vascular bundles along its interior; in most vascular bundles, xylem is more abundant than phloem; very narrow scalari-form vessels are arranged in a crescent wrapping around the phloem; fibers are absent; pith parenchyma cells are more or less spherical toward the exterior, polygonal toward the interior; triangular intercellular spaces are

frequent and, adjacent to them, cell walls are thickened; idioblasts containing bundles of acicular raphides of calcium oxalate are abundant in the pith, individual crystals are 15-35 ^m long; bundles do not disaggregate when cells are damaged.

Starch: Abundant in the pith, except in idioblasts containing acicular raphide bundles; granules are simple or in small groups, subspherical, 3-8 ^m diameter.

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