About the Editors Authors and Associates

Modern Ayurveda

Ayurveda the Science of Life

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Many hands make light work.

John Heywood (1497-1580), English playwright and poet


Roy Upton, herbalist, has been working and practicing professionally as an herbalist since 1981. Trained in ayurvedic, Chinese, Caribbean, and Western herbal medicine traditions, Roy is the founder, executive director, and editor of the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia; is cofounder, past president, and current vice president of the American Herbalists Guild (AHG); and serves on the General Chapters Committee of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and botanical expert advisory committees of AOAC International, the American Botanical Council, and NSF International. Roy is visiting faculty for Tai Sophia (Laurel, Maryland) and lecturer for the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Program at the University of California School of Pharmacy (Los Angeles, California). Roy is also the staff herbalist for the California-based herbal supplements company Planetary Herbals and is a member of the Standards Committee of the American Herbal Products Association.

Technical Editors

Alison Graff, PhD, works as a biologist for the state of California and does private consulting in the field of rare plant conservation. From 2000 to 2006, she worked as monograph development coordinator and associate editor at AHP. Dr. Graff received her doctorate in plant ecology from Washington University and the Missouri Botanical Garden and has taught plant systematics and plant anatomy at the University of California. She worked tirelessly on facilitating the detailed editing and cross-referencing of all the microscopy descriptions, providing important contributions to a number of chapters and bringing this text to completion.

Georgina Jolliffe, BPharm, PhD, CChem, MRSC, was senior lecturer in pharmacognosy at Chelsea College (now King's College), University of London. Her interests focused on analytical work involving microscopy and chemical analysis. Her particular interest in chromatographic techniques and microscopic analysis also led to the teaching of

MSc courses in chemical analysis in the Department of Chemistry. From 1973 until her retirement, Dr. Jolliffe served on the Chromatography and Electrophoresis Group of the Analytical Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry as a committee member, vice chairman, and chairman.

Elizabeth Williamson, PhD, is a professor of pharmacy and director of practice of the School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, in the United Kingdom. She was formerly a senior lecturer in pharmacognosy at the School of Pharmacy, University of London. Dr. Williamson is editor-in-chief of Phytotherapy Research; a member of the Commissions of the British and European Pharmacopoeia, the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, the Phytochemical Society of Europe, and the Research Committee of the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP); and a fellow of the Linnaean Society of London. Dr. Williamson studied botanical microscopy under the noted micros-copist Betty Jackson.

Contributing Editors

Wendy L. Applequist, PhD, received her PhD in botany, with a specialization in molecular systematics, from Iowa State University. She is currently an assistant curator at the Missouri Botanical Garden's William L. Brown Center, where she manages natural products discovery programs and provides botanical support to biomedical research projects dealing with medicinal plants. Dr. Applequist's research interests include quality control and sustainability of botanicals and the taxonomy of plant groups endemic to Madagascar; she is the author of The Identification of Medicinal Plants: A Handbook of the Morphology of Botanicals in Commerce.

Daniel Harder, PhD, is the former director of the University of California at Santa Cruz Arboretum and adjunct professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at UC Santa Cruz. He obtained his BS degree in botany from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley. As director of the arboretum, he oversaw the maintenance of world-renowned collections of native plant species from Australia, New Zealand, and California and the Southern Hemisphere within a 100-acre botanical garden on the UCSC campus. Dr. Harder is an expert on plants of Asia and the Pacific Region and Africa and has published numerous papers on his research on the floras of Central Africa and Vietnam, including works on the pharmaceutical properties of plants, taxonomy, ethnobotany, and new species discoveries.

Amala Raman-Soumayanath, PhD, is an associate professor in the Department of Neurology at Oregon Health and Science University, Portland. She obtained her pharmacy degree in 1981 from Chelsea College (University of London) and registered as a pharmaceutical chemist in the United Kingdom in 1982. In 1987 she obtained her PhD from King's College, University of London, for research in drug metabolism and subsequently became senior lecturer in pharmacognosy in the Pharmacy Department, University of London. Dr. Soumayanath has been involved in course development and teaching of pharmacognosy, including microscopy, to pharmacy undergraduates. Her research covers related areas such as phytochemistry, biological activities of natural products, and quality control issues and methods relevant to botanical products. Dr. Soumayanath's research has focused on investigating traditional plant remedies used in the treatment of vitiligo, psoriasis, and diabetes, both in terms of defining their modes of action and as sources of potential new therapeutic agents for these diseases.

Microscopic Characterizations

Professor Dr. Reinhard Länger studied pharmacy at the University of Vienna from 1978 to 1983. In 1986, he obtained his PhD with a thesis on the botanical systematics of the genus Primula in lower Austria and, in 1997, did his habilitation in pharmacognosy at the University of Vienna. Professor Dr. Länger remained at the University of Vienna as a lecturer of pharmacy and pharmacognosy until 2006, and specialized in the teaching of botanical microscopy, while also serving as the curator of the herbarium and herb garden. He currently serves as expert and assessor for herbal medicinal products at the Austrian Medicines Agency (AGES PharmMed), the Austrian counterpart of the U.S. FDA. Unless otherwise noted, all of the microscopy images in this text were done by Professor Dr. Länger.

Research Associate and AHP Administrator

Diana Eve Swisher, MA, received her BA degree in psychology from the University of California, Santa Cruz, and her MA degree from the Mt. Madonna Institute College of Ayurveda. Ms. Swisher has been a research associate and administrator for AHP since 1998 and works tirelessly at maintaining the organizational foundation of AHP.

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