Transverse section: Cork and parenchyma internal to it are narrow; secondary phloem with scattered fibers as in rhizome; large, diarch secondary xylem with two conspicuous cuneiform groups of vessels and fibers separated by very broad medullary rays, each ray forming an angle of approximately 140°; in older roots, a ring of thickened and pitted cells forms an arm across each ray that connects the groups of vessels and fibers; primary xylem is visible in the center as two short lines of vessels, each at a right angle to the secondary xylem; vessel members, fibers, and crystals are similar to those found in the rhizome.

Starch: Occurs in all parenchymatous tissues of the rhizome and root; solitary granules more or less spherical and very small (up to 5 ^m).

Powder: Fibers with characteristic wall texture; fragments of bordered-pitted, helical, annular, or reticulate vessels; parenchyma cells with cluster crystals of calcium oxalate; calcium oxalate prisms attached to fibers or the thickened pitted cells of the medullary rays; starch.

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