Stem

Surface view: Fragments of the stem may be found in the crude drug. The epidermis has a thick cuticle and occasional unicellular or uniseriate covering trichomes.

Transverse section: Cortex is relatively thick, with frequent idioblasts containing acicular raphide bundles; endodermis is visible; xylem vessels up to 10 ^m diameter; pith consists of large cells, some with reticulate thickenings.

Powder: Fragments of the leaves having wavy or sinuous epidermal cells with beaded wall thickenings and para-cytic stomata or not; fragments lacking the lower epidermis and showing the typical spherical intercellular spaces of the spongy mesophyll and idioblasts containing acicular raphide bundles; parenchyma from the stem with idio-blasts containing acicular raphides.

Chinese Herbs

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