4. Preparation

Kraemer (1920)

Scientific and Applied Pharmacognosy. "Pharmacognosy is essentially the study of raw materials and the products manufactured from them.In a narrow sense pharmacognosy embraces the study of medicinal plants and their crude products commonly designated as drugs."

Richard Wasicky (1929), professor of pharmacognosy, Vienna

Describes pharmacognosy as a biologic and experimental science.. .not only microscopic, but including chemical, chromatographic, biological methods

Alexander Tschirch (1856— 1939), professor of pharmacognosy, Bern

"Pharmacognosy is not a part or appendix of botany, but an independent science."

1950-1979 More than 750 articles contributed to international journals by pharmacognosists covering the following topics

1. Authentication of drugs

2. Evaluation of drugs and preparations

3. Isolation and characterization of constituents of crude medicinal plants

4. Biogenesis and function of pharmacologically active compounds

5. Problems affecting growth and development of plants

6. Surgical dressings

7. General and review articles

Trease and Evans (1966)

"Pharmacognosy is related to both botany and plant chemistry, and its history entitles it to be regarded as the parent of both."

Shellard (1983), UK

"Pharmacognosy—known initially as materia medica—may be defined as the scientific study of those substances which are used or have been used in medicine and pharmacy."

De Pasquale (1984), Italy

"To talk about pharmacognosy is to follow the evolution of man's knowledge during the various civilizations, i.e. the evolution of mankind from the dawn of time to the present." Describes pharmacognosy as a complete science that utilizes the knowledge and methods of various subjects (botany, zoology, physics, chemistry, chemical-physics, biochemistry, pharmacology) with the aim of establishing the characteristics of official drugs in order to obtain reproducible effects (practical-applicative course) and, in research, to confirm and clarify the activity of drugs used empirically or to derive from nature new means to be employed in therapy

"Pharmacognosy is the science of drugs that originate from living beings and are studied to help other living beings."

Tyler, Brady, and Robbers (1988)

Pharmacognosy—"an applied science that deals with the biologic, biochemical, and economic features of natural drugs and their constituents"

Samuelsson (1992)

"Pharmacognosy today is mainly natural products chemistry, specially devoted to the study of pharmacologically active natural products."

Table 1.2 Historical Definitions of Pharmacognosy (continued)

Bruhn and Bohlin (1997)

Pharmacognosy—"a molecular science that explores naturally occurring structure-activity relationships with a drug potential"

Hocking (1997)

Pharmacognosy became restricted to that branch of pharmacy investigating "medicinal substances from the plant, animal and mineral kingdoms in their natural, crude, or unprepared state, or in the form of such primary derivatives as oils, waxes, gums, and resins."

American Society of Pharmacognosy

"The study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources."

Kinghorn (2001)

"Pharmacognosy...refers to studies on natural product drugs...evolved from being a descriptive botanical subject to one having a more chemical and biologic include[s] aspects of cell and molecular biology in relation to natural products, ethnobotany and phytotherapy, in addition to the more traditional analytical method development and phytochemistry."

Wikipedia (2008)

"Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines derived from natural sources."

FIGURE 1.10 Poppy (Papaver somniferum). The traditional use of poppy to induce sleep and reduce pain led to the discovery and subsequent isolation of the alkaloid morphine. (From Bentley, R. and Trimen, H. 1880. Medicinal Plants.)
Chinese Herbs

Chinese Herbs

Worried For Your Health More Than Ever? Want To PREVENT Rather Than CURE Your Illness? Then WE are the only ones who can answer YOUR concern of time by presenting the exclusive work piece, the explicit and special eBook on CHINESE HERBS- the call of time.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment