Nerve Function

Figure 7 Schematic for the synergistic interaction between NO and prostacyclin pathways. Increased oxidative stress in diabetes and the generation of superoxide neutralizes endothelial NO production, which impairs vasa nervorum vasodilation. Diabetes also reduces hepatic n-6 essential fatty acid metabolism, particularly the rate-limiting desaturation steps in the conversion of dietary linoleic acid to y-linolenic acid. In turn this reduces vasa nervorum prostacyclin production and vasodilation. Normally, at the level of the endothelial cell, and possibly vascular smooth muscle, there is a mutual facilitatory interaction between NO and prostacyclin systems. This may give a therapeutic advantage for the use of joint treatment with antioxidant, which corrects the NO defect, and y-linolenic acid, which bypasses the desaturation block to boost prostacyclin production.

acid alone had modest effects on NCV and no statistically significant effects on blood flow. However, when the drugs were combined, NCV and blood flow were in the nondiabetic range, showing a greater than additive effect (57). Synergy was found for GLA-a-lipoic acid mixtures in ratios between l: 3 and 3: l, the greatest amplification of drug action being for ratios near l: l or with GLA slightly in excess. Similar interactive effects were noted for the novel orally active drug, SOC0150, which contains equimolar amounts of GLA and a-lipoic acid (Fig. 9). The dose-response curve for correction of sciatic motor NCV showed that SOC0150 had an ED50 of 9.3 mg/kg/day (giving 3.5 mg/kg/day a-lipoic acid and 4.5 mg/kg/day GLA). This compares very favorably with the ED50 of a-lipoic acid alone (38 mg/kg/day). In contrast to SOC0150, a-lipoic acid-containing compounds in which the GLA was substituted by the n-3 essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (57) or eico-

Figure 8 Effects of low-dose y-linolenic acid and a-lipoic acid treatment, alone and in combination, on (A) sciatic motor conduction velocity and (B) sciatic endoneurial blood flow in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Groups (n = 8-12): C, nondiabetic control; D, 8-week diabetic control; G or L, 8-week diabetic treated for the final 2 weeks with y-linolenic acid (20 mg/kg/day) as the monoester or a-lipoic acid (20 mg/kg/day); LG, 8-week diabetic given combined y-linolenic acid and a-lipoic acid treatment for the final 2 weeks. Data are mean ± SEM. The horizontal lines show the predicted conduction velocity and blood flow values for additive drug effects. The LG group greatly exceeded this level for both measures, indicating a marked synergistic drug interaction. (See Ref. 57 for further details.)

Figure 8 Effects of low-dose y-linolenic acid and a-lipoic acid treatment, alone and in combination, on (A) sciatic motor conduction velocity and (B) sciatic endoneurial blood flow in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Groups (n = 8-12): C, nondiabetic control; D, 8-week diabetic control; G or L, 8-week diabetic treated for the final 2 weeks with y-linolenic acid (20 mg/kg/day) as the monoester or a-lipoic acid (20 mg/kg/day); LG, 8-week diabetic given combined y-linolenic acid and a-lipoic acid treatment for the final 2 weeks. Data are mean ± SEM. The horizontal lines show the predicted conduction velocity and blood flow values for additive drug effects. The LG group greatly exceeded this level for both measures, indicating a marked synergistic drug interaction. (See Ref. 57 for further details.)

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Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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