Natural Dietary Supplements

Inner Peace Formula

The formula product of nutrition blends-inner-peace is well known, it is a remedy for plants used for a wide range of problems. In oncology, it is especially recommended as a topical treatment to prevent or treat skin irritations after radiotherapy. The product is a succulent plant with many amazing uses, it is then applied topically to the skin and hair or ingested. The product can also be combined with other natural ingredients to be part of your health or beauty routine. The product is scientifically proven the ingredients used in the Inner Peace formula have been specifically chosen because of scientific studies proving that they have the power to significantly improve the health and well-being of the individual. For decades, the soothing nature of nutrition blends-inner-peace formula has been known and respected by the people who believe in naturopathy. The product has compounds such as ashwagandha, magnolia, hops,l-Theanine, Passion Flower, Panax Ginseng, Hawthorn Berry that are extremely beneficial for human health. It has 18 amino acids that work in association with other compounds of the human body to deliver numerous health benefits. It has been reported extensively that Panax Ginseng supports the immune system by enhancing the body's resistance to illness and microbial attacks. More here...

Inner Peace Formula Summary


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Contents: Dietary Supplement
Author: Kimberly Langdon
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Dietary Supplement Regulations

Regulation of dietary supplements has had a long and sometimes controversial history. Most Americans assume dietary supplements are as tightly regulated as OTC and prescription medications are. But with the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), dietary supplement controls were relaxed. Supplement manufacturers are no longer required to provide data supporting safety as required for both OTC and prescription drugs. In order to understand the evolution of current regulations, it is insightful to explore the history of food and drug regulations. In 1903 Dr. Harvey Wiley, then head of the Bureau of Chemistry, established safety standards for some chemical preservatives through the volunteer efforts of the Poison Squad. The Poison Squad, a group of young men who volunteered to eat only foods that had been treated with measured amounts of chemical preservatives, served as human guinea pigs to learn about the safety and side effects of food...

The Perception of Antioxidants in America

The average American has come to perceive antioxidants as the first line of defense against aging and chronic disease. Even though scientific studies report conflicting results and do not yet provide specific guidelines, dietary supplement use in the United States, which includes antioxidants, continues to rise. Concern over dietary supplement usage and safety issues due to unquestioned consumer confidence in supplement effectiveness and safety is growing as well. This has prompted many health agencies such as the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (IOM), National Institute of Health (NIH), and the World Health Organization (WHO) to study vitamin, mineral, and antioxidant efficacy and use, subsequently issuing statements that establish interventions, consumer education programs, and recommendations. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) estimates there are over 29,000 dietary supplements already in the market with approximately 1,000 new products developed annually.6...

The Medical Community and Supplements

Many health care professionals find they are just as confused about supplements as the general public. Because of the many uncertainties surrounding the effectiveness and safety of supplements, most physicians err on the side of caution. A few studies about physician health and treatment practices shed some insight on how physicians handle the topic of dietary supplements with their patients. As a group, physicians generally have a healthier lifestyle and lower mortality rate than the general public. Physicians with healthy habits are more likely to discuss preventive health behaviors with their patients, than those who do not, which in turn appears to influence counseling practices.31 Not many studies have investigated physician attitude toward dietary supplement and CAM therapies. A literature search turns up two studies worthy of note. The first examines physician attitude toward CAM therapies. This study found most physicians, the majority being women and younger than 46 years...

Vitamins and Minerals

Essential dietary minerals are chemical elements that assist in the regulation of fluid balance, muscle contractions, and nerve impulses. They are classified as macronutrients, micronutrients, trace minerals, and trace contaminants. Macronutrients are those minerals needed in amounts of at least 100 mg per day or more. Micronutrients are needed in amounts no higher than a few milligrams per day. Trace minerals may be essential, but no conclusive evidence has established this. Trace contaminants are minerals found in the environment that are ingested unintentionally and have no known need. Minerals are absorbed through the intestine and the body usually regulates mineral stores to keep them in balance. As a rule, excess minerals are excreted, but some drugs, medical illnesses, and dehydration can interfere with mineral balance and result in deficiencies, toxicity, and sometimes even death.17

Special Considerations

Smokers, teenagers, young adults, and those who ingest excess alcohol have been found to have lower plasma levels of carotenoids. It is uncertain if this is due to age, lifestyle choice, or because fruit and vegetable intake is generally poor in these individuals. Supplementing these at risk groups with carotenoid supplements has been shown to be beneficial however caution is advised with smokers. As the CARET and ATBC studies found, cancer deaths increased when ( -carotene dietary supplements were given to smokers (although it is interesting to note that cancer deaths did not increase when they were supplemented with ( -carotene from food sources rather than from supplements).

Supplement versus Food Source

Fruits and vegetables are the primary food sources for vitamin C. Citrus fruits and juices, tomatoes, tomato products, tomato juice, and potatoes are the most popular sources in the American diet. But vitamin C is also found in brussel sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, strawberries, cabbage, spinach, and foods fortified with vitamin C. Time and condition of the growing season, growing location, cooking practices, and storage time before consumption can all affect the amount of vitamin C available from a food source. Table 5.2 lists common vitamin C dietary sources.10 Vitamin C bioavailability from food sources and dietary supplements appears to be similar and both have an estimated 70 to 90 percent absorption rate by the body. As expected, absorption rates do decrease when intake increases beyond physiological needs.11

Zinc and Coenzyme Q10

Zinc and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) are compounds that need to be mentioned because they appear to have a close connection to antioxidant activity. Zinc, an essential micronutrient, is found in almost every cell and serves as a catalyst for enzymes, supports a healthy immune system, aids wound healing, is required in DNA synthesis, is required for growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence, and maintains the senses of taste and smell. It is found in a wide variety of foods, but good sources are oysters, red meat, poultry, some shellfish, beans, nuts, whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, and dairy products. Bioavailability is greater from animal sources than plant sources. Phytates (plant phosphorus that binds minerals making them unavailable for absorption) in plant sources (whole grains, cereal, and legumes) can bind zinc, thus decreasing its bioavailability. Zinc absorption can also be inhibited by iron, calcium, phosphorus, protein, fiber, and picolinate (a...

Antioxidants and the Redox Biology of Life

According to a November 30, 2006 Wall Street Journal1 article, resveratrol supplements are the current hot supplements in America. They have become so popular with Americans that retailers are unable to keep up with consumer demand. A plant phytochemical, flavonoid and stilbene, and antioxidant molecule, media portrayal of resveratrol as a possible antiaging elixir that is life-prolonging has greatly boosted sales of this dietary supplement. The buzz about resveratrol commenced when investigators from Harvard Medical School published a paper in the journal Nature in August 2003 about this phytochemical, which is found in red wine and grape skins.2 The investigators found that resveratrol directly influenced critical genes and prolonged lifespan by 30 to 70 percent in yeast cells, citing unpublished data of preliminary results that the lifespan of fruit flies and earthworms could also be extended. Subsequent studies have demonstrated resveratrol's capability to improve health and...

Making Sense of It

As research studies till date show, consistent evidence supporting antioxidant benefits in human trials has been disappointing. In vitro and animal studies suggest antioxidant supplementation provides benefits, however, some recent research demonstrates that in some cases antioxidant supplementation may actually do more harm than good. Individual antioxidants in the form of dietary supplements are more potent and bioavailable than they are in food matrices, and they do not exhibit the synergistic effects with other compounds found within natural food sources. Therefore, supplements most likely do not possess all the physiologically active components needed to be truly effective in preventing disease incidence and progression. In addition, individual genetics and or physical status may have as significant an effect on health as antioxidant nutrients do. We saw in the early years of America that poor diets caused many nutrition-related, life-threatening, and debilitating diseases. Food...


Antioxidants-Health aspects-United States. 2. Antioxidants industry-United States. 3. Dietary supplements-United States. 4. Functional foods-United States. I. Richer, Alice C. II. Title. III. Series. DNLM 1. Antioxidants-therapeutic use-United States. 2. Antioxidants-adverse effects-United States. 3. Antioxidants-metabolism-United States. 4. Dietary Supplements-United States. QV 325 M638u 2008 RB170.M52 2008 616.07-dc22 2007029900

Supplement Efficacy

It is a fair assumption that more hard data is needed to determine dietary supplement benefits and risks. The U.S. supplement industry is largely unregulated and supplement functional food nutraceutical use continues to increase. Most supplement users are healthy and at low risk for nutritional inadequacies. Worldwide trials of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, (-carotene, and other carotenoids were reviewed in 2000 by a panel appointed by the IOM of the National Academies of Science, which was charged with establishing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for these antioxidants.39 The panel concluded, as of 2000, there was insufficient evidence to support claims that taking mega doses of dietary antioxidants, such as selenium, vitamins C and E, or carotenoids (including (-carotene) prevents chronic diseases. Hypernutrition (excess nutrient intake) and public safety issues are fast becoming emerging concerns. More stringent government interventions are currently being put into place, such...


All patients should be encouraged to improve their intake of antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals through a plant-based diet. Until such time that scientific evidence makes a case for change, patients who are under oxidative stress due to illness or other causes and those wishing to supplement their diets should be advised not to exceed safe intake levels advised by the Food and Nutrition Board of the IOM. For use of any dietary supplement it is best to consult the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) fact sheets available on their Web site (see Appendix C).163

Present Situation And Potential Of Seaweeds For Novel Functional Food Product Developments

Seaweeds have long been recognized as potential sources for the phyco-colloid industry dealt with agar, carrageenan, furcellaran, and algin to use as food additives in the modes of stabilizers, texture enhancers, viscosity modulators, gelling agents, etc. Seaweeds have gained the popularity in the international trade specifically for these phycocolloids, dried seaweeds, and products of laminarin and fucoidans. With the increased understanding of the health beneficial properties of these seaweed compounds, considerable efforts have been exerted in discovering more direct therapeutic-related food applications, but, despite high expectations, no commercially successful product ranges have yet been developed utilizing these compounds targeting optimum health and nutrition of human. Very few seaweed-based functional food products can be seen covering a narrow market niches such as powder forms of alginates and carragee-nans, phytocomplexes fortified with fucoidans, aligns, minerals and...

Good Manufacturing Practices

Overriding the entire issue of authenticity, purity, and quality are the GMPs mandated by law to be used in the manufacture of botanical dietary supplements. The FDA has the primary regulatory jurisdiction over the manufacture of botanical supplements and botanical drugs. For botanical supplements, manufacturers are required to develop standards of identity, purity, strength, and composition and to manufacture the product in a manner that will prevent adulteration. Botanical drugs are subjected to the same GMPs applied to conventional pharmaceuticals. Quality means that the dietary supplement consistently meets the established specifications for identity, purity, strength and composition and limits on contaminants and has been manufactured, packaged, labeled and held under conditions to prevent adulteration (Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations)

Finding Nutrition Studies on Colloidal Silver

The National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) offers a searchable bibliographic database called the IBIDS (International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements National Institutes of Health, Building 31, Room 1B29, 31 Center Drive, MSC 2086, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-2086, Tel 301-435-2920, Fax 301-480-1845, E-mail ods The IBIDS contains over 460,000 scientific citations and summaries about dietary supplements and nutrition as well as references to published international, scientific literature on dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, and botanicals.2 The IBIDS includes references and citations to both human and animal research studies. 2 Adapted from http IBIDS is produced by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health to assist the public, healthcare providers, educators, and researchers in locating credible, scientific information on dietary supplements. IBIDS was developed and...

The Molecular Genetic Toolbox And Redox Biology

The tools for studying oxidative stress responses are now expanding as a result of the human genome development, which led to completion of the sequencing of the human genome in 2003. In the 1990s development of DNA microarrays and protein chips made large-scale genomic and proteomic investigations possible. DNA microarrays can measure the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously, providing extensive information on gene interactions and cell function. Thus, microarrays can monitor the global profile of gene expression in response to food, dietary supplements, and phar-

History of Use of Traditional Herbal Medicines

By definition, 'traditional' use of herbal medicines implies substantial historical use, and this is certainly true for many products that are available as 'traditional herbal medicines'. In many developing countries, a large proportion of the population relies on traditional practitioners and their armamentarium of medicinal plants in order to meet health care needs. Although modern medicine may exist side-by-side with such traditional practice, herbal medicines have often maintained their popularity for historical and cultural reasons. Such products have become more widely available commercially, especially in developed countries. In this modern setting, ingredients are sometimes marketed for uses that were never contemplated in the traditional healing systems from which they emerged. An example is the use of ephedra ( Ma huang) for weight loss or athletic performance enhancement (Shaw, 1998). While in some countries, herbal medicines are subject to rigorous manufacturing standards,...

Introduction of traditional herbal medicines into Europe the USA and other developed countries

In the USA, there is both small-scale and large-scale production of herbal products and there can be wide variation in their content and quality in the marketplace. Regulations in the USA do not yet require that dietary supplement manufacturers adhere to standard manufacturing practices, and so quality is not guaranteed (see Section 3). The public becomes discouraged by reports that products taken from store shelves do not consistently contain the ingredients or in the amounts that are claimed on the label.

Biological Properties Medicinal Applications Of Laminaria

Laminaria possesses remarkable properties that make it a wonderful component of dietary supplements. Due to its amazing medicinal benefits, it has been used in traditional Chinese medicine since centuries and is listed in the Chinese pharmacopeia. In general, Laminaria is considered as a cold, salty herb, prescribed to cleanse heat, resolve phlegm, and soften and disperse hard accumulations (e.g., goiters). It is often used to control edema, as an expectorant and antitussive, and as a remedy for testicular pain and swelling. Despite its salty character, the herb is slightly hypotensive. As discussed under the chemical properties, a dietary supplement, Laminaria, is rich in several constituents that can be very beneficial to the health. Its high iodine content proves to be a great natural boon for the thyroid gland to prevent goiter. Apart from its high calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and trace minerals such as manganese, copper, selenium, and zinc, it provides vitamins B1 and B2...

Types Of Cam Therapies

Alternative This term means foregoing recognized medical therapy and using other treatments for a condition for example, when vitamin supplements, magnets and or imagery is used in place of traditional cancer treatments. Integrative A term coined by CAM practitioners to indicate the combined use of pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacologic methods for medical treatment. This term was first used by Dr. Andrew Weil and is the most common term applied to CAM therapies at this time. (NCCAM, 2004) Nutritional approaches that incorporate the use of diet, herbs and vitamin supplements Today, all dietary supplements are categorized under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, which requires quality, safety, and efficacy standards. However, there are still discrepancies in contents of some of the supplements and herbal remedies sold over the counter, so buyers should always be wary of what they are purchasing. This is especially true for pregnant and compromised patients. Common...

Dietary Sources Supplements and Recommended Intake of Vitamin E

Vegetable oils and lipid-rich plant products (e.g. nuts, seeds, grains) are the main dietary sources of vitamin E (10,11). In Western diets, vitamin E intake derives mainly from fats and oils contained in margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressing, and desserts, and increasingly also from fortified food (e.g., breakfast cereals, milk, fruit juices) (12-14). It is noteworthy that the U.S. diet contains large amounts of y-tocopherol compared with populations in other Western countries, which is a result of the high consumption of soybean and corn oils containing more y- than a-tocopherol (15). Vitamin E used for food fortification or dietary supplements consists mainly of a-tocopherol, derived either from natural sources (i.e., methylated y-tocopherol from vegetable oil) or from synthetic production it is usually esterified to increase stability. Although universal dietary supplementation has not been not recommended, a dose of 200 mg d vitamin E (RRR-a-tocopherol) has been suggested to...

Uptake Distribution and Metabolism of Vitamin E

It should be mentioned that serum levels of vitamin E correlate with cholesterol levels, and hence do not necessarily correlate with vitamin E intake (16). However, except for non- or poorly responding subjects, serum levels of vitamin E can usually be increased up to threefold by intake of dietary supplements reaching a saturation level (20).

Conclusions And Further Prospects

Active components that are structurally and functionally different from terrestrial organisms. Among these, phlorotannins and fucoidans are specifically found in the marine algae. And the above discussed in vitro, in vivo reports clearly suggest the effectiveness of phlorotannins and fucoidans from brown algae in proper downregulation of MMPs and related pathological effects. Moreover, as brown algae are considered as a dietary supplement, it could be recommended that consumption of these marine brown algae could be helpful in the proper management of imbalanced MMP expressions and thus can be considered as medicinal foods. Further, until now, majority of the phlorotannins and fucoidans reported were from the members of the species Ecklonia and Eisenia. Many more brown algal members have to be screened for novel phlorotannins and polysaccharide derivatives that can be recommended as potential MMPIs.

Problems Associated with Dependence on One Antioxidant

Supplementation of diets with any single molecule showing in vitro antioxidant capacity does not necessarily promote health improvement. Recent studies of p-carotene have revealed that there may be risks associated with antioxidant supplementation. In the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (1994) and the CARET study (Omenn et al., 1996) the risk ratio for lung cancer in smokers receiving p-carotene increased. Protective effects of a diet rich in fruit and vegetable have recently been shown to reduce lung cancer independently of the effects of single-vitamin supplements (Yong et al., 1997). Problems with single supplements have also been observed in animal models. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound from red wine with an antioxidant capacity in vitro (Siemann and Creasy, 1992) and has received much attention. Resveratrol may inhibit cancer in mice (Jang et al., 1997), however dietary supplementation with it is not associated with reduced lipid peroxidation in...

Dilemma about Antioxidants

Lifestyle may be one of the determinants of the picture presented to the investigators. Heart disease and cancer are generally described as lifestyle disease but the research approach focuses on only one aspect of lifestyle. Slattery et al. (1995) examined dietary antioxidants and plasma lipids in participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and found that higher intake of dietary antioxidants is associated with other lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nonsmoking. In Britain, plasma concentrations of antioxidants are related to social class, being higher in the better educated and more affluent (Gregory et al., 1990). If protective levels of antioxidants such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and others are part of a life-long behavioural pattern, we cannot expect too much if we influence one aspect of risk by dietary supplements without addressing other behaviours.

Usp Authenticated Reference Materials

USP Authenticated Reference Materials are plant organs or tissues certified to have come from a plant that has been properly identified as belonging to the species listed on the label. The authentication is performed by botanical taxonomists, plant anatomists, phytochemists, or other plant scientists contracted by the USP. A USP Authenticated Reference Material is typically a dried, pulverized plant organ or tissue, and it may be obtained from USP. Herbarium samples that may include roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds of the authenticated plants are archived and made available for examination upon request. Standard herbarium samples usually consist of the entire mature plant. USP Authenticated Reference Materials undergo the same botanical and chemical diagnostic tests as those applied to the test raw materials. A test article must have all botanical and chemical characteristics specified and found in the USP Authenticated Reference Material. To serve its intended...

Botanical Identification

The botanical identification of raw plant materials used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, excipients, or dietary supplements consists of ascertaining the macroscopic characteristics of the plant part, such as root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, or seed, used in the manufacture of the article, as well as ascertaining its histological (microscopic) features. It may also include the This section exclusively addresses the diagnostic morphological and anatomical features of vascular plants and the various plant parts, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds, from which pharmaceuticals, excipients, or dietary supplements are derived. Vascular plants include pteridophytes (ferns and fern allies for example, genera Aspidium, Equisetum, and Lycopodium), gymnosperms (seed plants, in which the seed is not enclosed within a fruit for example, genera Ephedra, Gingko, and Pinus), and angiosperms (seed plants, in which the seed is enclosed within a fruit for example, genera...

Hydrastis canadensis L

Goldenseal leaf has been traded, primarily in tea form, for decades though it is not widely used in herbal dietary supplements. Traditionally in the Southeast, goldenseal leaves and tops were used as a tea as a mild stomachic and for the liver and the tea was also given to children. There appears to be no research regarding its use. Its constituent profile is similar to that of the root including containing berberine, though in much lower concentrations. Leaf may adulterate goldenseal root products and can be easily detected microscopically.

Dietary Supply of Antioxidants in the Developed World

Vitamin C and p-carotene are available from fruits and or vegetables, and vitamin E from vegetable oils. Southern European countries consuming the classical Mediterranean diet show that optimal plasma levels of these antioxidants can easily be achieved. This diet is characterized by a preference for fresh products and frequent consumption of fruit vegetables legumes and oils with high vitamin E content. In contrast, major parts of populations in the USA or in northern parts of Europe do not consume optimal amounts of antioxidant nutrients. The availability of lower-priced convenience foods in the USA acts against the consumption of freshly prepared foods. Thus, only 10 of Americans achieved five servings of fruit and vegetables daily (Patterson et al., 1990) as recommended by the United States' national food guide, the Food Guide Pyramid (Achterberg et al., 1994). Only a quarter consumed fruits or vegetables rich in vitamin C or the carotenoids, and 41 had no fruits or vegetables on...

Diseases Associated with Selenium Deficiency

Dietary deficiency in selenium has been associated with a wide range of conditions, from the development of cardiomyopathy involved in Keshan disease to mood disorders and Parkinson's disease.25 28 Considering the role of selenium in anti-oxidant enzymes such as GPx, it is not surprising that selenium deficiency is implicated in conditions associated with oxidative stress, such as atherosclerosis.23,26,27,29 Selenium dietary supplements, sodium selenite and selenium-enriched yeast are available to counter potential deficiency and a number of excellent reviews address the consequences of inadequate selenium intake.26,27,30 Whilst both sodium selenite and selenomethionine (SeMet) (present in Se-rich yeast) are available for biosynthesis of selenoproteins, SeMet is advocated by some as a preferred source of selenium as it is the form commonly found in food and is less toxic than sodium selenite.26,31 Excess SeMet can be

Advantages Of Using Dietary Chemopreventive Strategies

Dietary chemoprevention represents an attractive approach to this problem, especially given the young age of the patient population. Dietary supplements could be taken orally, which is certainly advantageous compared with the daily injections required with interferon therapy or direct injections of the lesions with steroids. Presumably, the side-effect profile would be minimal and certainly much more favorable than the fevers, irritability, growth disturbance, immunosuppression, and spastic diplegia (a form of cerebral palsy) associated with the other treatment options discussed in the previous section. Indeed, the EOMA model has proven efficacy to demonstrate the antiangiogenic properties of edible berry extracts and to explore the feasibility of dietary chemoprevention for endothelial cell neoplasms.40

Finding Nutrition Studies on Coenzyme Q10

The National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) offers a searchable bibliographic database called the IBIDS (International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements National Institutes of Health, Building 31, Room 1B29, 31 Center Drive, MSC 2086, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-2086, Tel 301-435-2920, Fax 301-480-1845, E-mail ods The IBIDS contains over 460,000 scientific citations and summaries about dietary supplements and nutrition as well as references to published international, scientific literature on dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, and botanicals.7 The IBIDS includes references and citations to both human and animal research studies. 7 Adapted from http IBIDS is produced by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health to assist the public, healthcare providers, educators, and researchers in locating credible, scientific information on dietary supplements. IBIDS was developed and...

Microalgae As Potential Antiasthmatic Agents

Blue-green algae known as cyanobacteria have shown antioxidant, neu-roprotective, cytoprotective, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. Edible blue-green algae, such as Spirulina and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are currently marketed as dietary supplements with various health claims for immune function, inflammation, heart disease, and general well-being. Nostoc commune, a blue-green edible microalga, has been used as a food delicacy or herbal medicine in Asian, African, and South American countries for centuries (Cao, 1998).

Uvinduced Photodamage And Photoprotection

Hence, photoprotection is a critical and crucial concern to avoid these undesired effects. The increase in solar UVR on the earth's surface due to the deterioration in the stratospheric ozone layer has increased the interest for searching natural, photoprotective compounds from various sources (Rastogi et al., 2010). Stratospheric ozone depletion leads to an increase in the short wavelengths of UVR and in consequence to an increase in H2O2 formation in surface waters. In such cases, algae undergo oxidative stress, where UVR induces the formation of H2O2 by photoacti-vation of dissolved organic material (DOM), photochemical degradation, and liberation of exited electrons, which initiate reduction of molecular oxygen (Dummermuth et al., 2003). Hence, photoprotective processes prevent or minimize generation of oxidizing molecules, scavenge ROS efficiently, and repair damage that inevitably occurs (Niyogi, 1999). Micronutrients such as carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbates, flavonoids, or...

Photoprotective Role Of Various Algal Foods

Knowingly or unknowingly, algae are well consumed by most of the Asian countries, which is the gateway to understand the potentiality of the algal foods. As human beings are health as well as beauty cautious, several nutritional supplements containing algae have entered the food markets. Below are such microalgal and macroalgal foods that are very important in terms of health and photoprotection. As per a published article on Web, pleasant taste, minerals, and vitamin and bioactive compounds are just some of the reasons for the applications of seaweed in the kitchen, stall, and health products.

Role Of Natural Products In Cancer Cure

The conception and development of cancer is a slow process that progresses over many years and stages. Despite the complexity of cancer progression, there are many opportunities to intervene during its path of development and to wage battle with tumors. Fortunately, nature provides us with a wide variety of beneficial metabolites in the form of dietary and herbal supplements that can interact at one or many stages of the cancer progression, starting from the initial exposure to carcinogens through outright malignancy in the final step. These beneficial compounds include vitamins, essential fatty acids, amino acids, and a wide array of nonessential nutrients, called phytochemicals. According to dietary guidelines advocated by the American Cancer Society and the U.S. National Cancer Institute, eating plenty of fruits and vegetables provides the first line of defense against disease initiation in general and cancer in particular.12 There is also extensive literature covering the...

Antioxidant Vitamins

Vitamins A, C, and E represent the main exogenous sources of antioxidant protection. They are efficient free radical scavengers that act by converting free radicals into less damaging compounds, hence avoiding their deleterious effects (55,56). Studies based on dietary histories have shown that people with diets high in antioxidant vitamins tend to be protected against certain neurodegenerative diseases. Other studies have also shown that patients who have decreased blood levels of these vitamins are more prone to some of these diseases than healthy controls. This, however, does not imply automatically that vitamins taken as dietary supplements will provide equivalent protection. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables contain myriads naturally occurring antioxidants, which may be more efficient and possibly essential coadjuvants to these vitamins (57,58). Furthermore, diets rich in antioxidant vitamins may be a marker for other potentially unknown protective lifestyle practices, which...

Rich mineral extracts of marine algae

Marine alga not only consists of organic active compounds, but it is also an abundant source of rich minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and other bone-supporting elements (Adluri et al., 2010 Kim et al., 2006). Mineral-rich extracts have been isolated from red marine algae Lithotham-nion calcareum and checked as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Female mice on the high-fat Western-style diet had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects developed in the female mice fed on the high-fat Western-style diet could be reversed in the presence of the mineral-rich algal extract supplement (Aslam et al., 2010). The effect of water-soluble extract of Sargassum horneri has been shown to have an anabolic effect on bone components due to stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption in rat femoral tissues in vitro and in vivo (Matsumoto et al., 2008).

Redox State As A Target For Therapeutic Intervention

An increasingly popular hypothesis states that senescence may result from the accumulation of oxidative damage (Harman, 1956 Shigenaga et al., 1994 Stadtman, 1992 Gilchrest and Bohr, 1997) and that dietary antioxidants may slow the degenerative process (Harman, 1956 Stadtman, 1992 Gilchrest and Bohr, 1997). In line with this hypothesis, vitamin E was shown to ameliorate age-related health problems (reviewed in Manton etal., 1997), and certain age-related degenerative processes were even found to be reversed by treatment with antioxidants (reviewed in Stadtman, 1992, Gilchrest and Bohr, 1997). However, the general use of antioxidants as dietary supplements is limited by the fact that there is little information about what type and quantity of antioxidant are needed, and how the individual can monitor that she or he has gotten enough.

Estimate of the Selfmedication Market Natural Remedies Vitamins

In the USA traditional vitamins and minerals - now a US 4.6 billion business for nutritional supplements - lead the list of the most desired health-promoting substances. Vitamins E and C are by far the most popular, followed by calcium, the B vitamins, p-carotene and iron (Sloan, 1996). Perhaps the most noteworthy nutrition trend in the last couple of years is

The Nature of Crops

An inclusive definition of crops is that they are photosynthetic organisms cultivated, or otherwise deliberately encouraged to grow, by man. Most crops are thought of in terms ofa product, which is harvested by man directly or, indirectly, via domesticated grazing animals. This definition would include not only the 'obvious' crops such as cereals and 'root crops', but also managed pastures, trees used for wood or fuel, seaweeds cultivated for their wall polysaccharides, microalgae cultivated as food for maricultured invertebrates or as sources of human dietary supplements, and cut flowers. It may be stretching the definition of crops to include amenity plantings and sports turf (unless dislodging divots can be termed harvesting ), or any plantations for C sequestration.

Marine algal diet with calcium supplement

Aslam et al. (2010) investigated whether a mineral-rich extract from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Their experiments showed that the mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the high-fat Western-style diet had better bone structure function than the mice on the low-fat chow diet. The algae extract is already available as a food supplement under the name Aquamin (GRAS 000028), which is currently used in various products of human consumption in Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America.

Brand Differentiation

During the past few years we have seen the traditional vitamin supplement companies offer customized products for men, women, smokers, joggers, osteoporosis, menopause and children. Look for the food industry to follow suit. The nutraceutical functional foods market will mature offering foods and beverages not only for improved lifestyle and performance, but also for those with risk factors for the major diseases and those afflicted with chronic conditions.

Chemotherapyinduced neuropathic pain

While this type of neuropathic pain can respond in the same way to treatment as any other type of neuropathic pain, the patient has the twin burdens of the cancer illness and disability produced as a temporary side effect of chemotherapy to endure, and so the imposition of neuropathic pain treatment related side effects needs to be avoided if at all possible. Therefore, the simpler the treatment the better. Particular treatments stand out in this respect. The dietary supplement L-carnitine has the advantages of a low risk of producing side effects and a relatively high chance of helping. Time to effect is also sort. Anecdotal evidence would also suggest that IV lidocaine and oral lamotrigine can both be efficacious and relatively well tolerated by the patient.

Flavonoids and isoflavonoids

The antioxidant properties of flavonoids present in fresh fruits and vegetables are thought to contribute to their preventative effect against cancer and heart diseases. Rutin, a flavonoid glycoside found in many plants, e.g. Sophora japonica (Fabaceae), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, family Polygonaceae) and rue (Ruta graveolens, family Rutaceae), is probably the most studied of all flavonoids, and is included in various multivitamin preparations. Another flavonoid glycoside, hesperidin from Citrus peels, is also included in a number of dietary supplements, and claimed to have a beneficial effect for the treatment of capillary bleeding.

PGlycoprotein Pgp ABCB1

Dietary constituents and phytochemicals also affect drug absorption and disposition through drug-nutrient P-gp interactions, potentially impacting the clinical pharmacokinetics of therapeutic agents (Walter-Sack and Klotz, 1996). Recently, it has been estimated in the US that approximately 30-50 of the population used a dietary supplement that can alter the absorption of drugs through mechanisms like competitive inhibition or transporter induction (Kauffman et al., 2002). The flavonoids, particularly the flavonols, flavanones, flavones as well as coumarins, and other ingredients present in fruits, vegetables, and herbs have been found to modulate the activity of P-gp function and may cause detrimental effects on drug pharmacokinetics (Izzo, 2005). One of the most recognized interactions is the ingestion of grapefruit juice and or St John's Wort which results in the change of the pharmacokinetic profiles of cyclosporine A and digoxin due to inhibition or induction of P-gp mediated...

Sulfated polysaccharides

Fucoidan, an ingredient of marine algae, is composed of a polymer of a1 3-linked l-fucose, with sulfate groups on some of the fucose residues at four positions (Patankar et al., 1993). Out of the many biologically effective activities of fucoidans, in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that marine algae fucoidans possess antitumor, anticancer, antimetastatic, and fibrinolytic properties in mice (Religa et al., 2000). In one of the in vitro studies, fucoidan isolated from Laminaria guryanovae has effectively inhibited the neoplastic cell transformation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mouse epidermal JB6 Cl41 cells (Lee et al., 2008). As it is evident that EGFR, one of the receptor tyrosine kinases, plays a pivotal role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation and is also considered as a target for the treatment of cancers, the inhibitory activity of fucoidan suggests that marine edible algae could...

Panax ginseng c A

Asian ginseng is one of the most highly regarded of energizing tonics in the entire Chinese materia medica. It has also become one of the most popularly used of all herbal tonifiers in the West and has been incorprated into myriad products from traditional foods to dietary supplements, textiles, and cosmetics. There are various forms and qualities of Asian ginseng, including wild (shan shen), cultivated (yuan shen), woods grown (linxia shen), processed red without sugar (hong shen or hong ren shen see separate entry), and processed red with sugar (tang ren shen), to name only a few. An initial review of these different types suggests that they are microscopically almost identical. Steaming, however, turns starch granules into gelatinous masses that give the parenchyma cells of red ginseng a swollen appearance. There are also different species of Panax (e.g., P. ginseng, P. quincefolius, and P. pseudo ginseng). These are typically not confused in trade, but a microscopic...

Biological Potencies of Dietary Estrogens

There are several other anti-cancer effects of isoflavones which do not involve ER mechanisms. Genistein is known to inhibit protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), which are responsible for phosphorylating proteins required for the regulation of cell function, including cell division 75 . These enzymes appear to be necessary for epidermal growth factor function and the action of other growth factors, which indicate the anti-proliferative potential of this iso-flavonoid. Since many of the protein products of human oncogenes were found to take part in growth factor signaling through PTKs, a rationale was developed for the role of genistein in cancer prevention 79 . Genistein can inhibit cell cycle progression in tumor cells independent of action at the ER 80-82 . Genistein has also been shown to inhibit the DNA repair enzyme topoisomerase 83 , and to act as an antioxidant, thus potentially preventing apoptosis, or programmed cell death, a protective mechanism induced in cells that have been...

Ephedra sinica Stapf Ephedra equisetina Bunge E intermedia

Ephedra is one of the primary herbal decongestants used worldwide. It formed the basis of ephedrine-based pharmaceuticals and continues to be used for this purpose today. Due to concerns over the misuse of concentrated ephedrine products for weight loss and athletic performance, ephedra for use as a dietary supplement ingredient has been banned. According to the Chinese pharmacopoeia (PPRC 2005), three species of Ephedra are accepted interchangeably as Herba Ephedrae E. sinica Stapf, E. equisetina Bunge, and E. intermedia Schrenk ex C. A. Mey. Although different species and varieties are used interchangeably, the herb is generally not subject to adulteration.

Monographs And General Chapters

An official product shall be formulated with the intent to provide 100 percent of the quantity of each ingredient declared on the label. Where the minimum amount of a substance present in a dietary supplement is required by law to be higher than the lower acceptance criterion allowed for in the monograph, the upper acceptance criterion contained in the monograph may be increased by a corresponding amount. In Dietary Supplements Additional ingredients may be added to dietary supplement products provided that the additional ingredients (1) comply with applicable regulatory requirements and (2) do not interfere with the assays and tests prescribed for determining compliance with compendial standards.

Natural Products That Were Developed Into Anticancer Drugs

Knowledge of traditional medicine affords a valuable approach to the development of new anticancer drugs. The search for plant species related to those used in folk medicine using chemotaxonomic principles is another successful approach for developing new drugs. A fair number of anticancer drugs currently on the market were developed based upon their use in traditional medicine as a folk remedy, although not all of them were known to be active against cancer. This section of the chapter covers the natural supplements that are currently being used as treatments against cancers or other diseases. Note, however, that these products are also the original source for the development of important anticancer drugs currently in the market.

O Eicosanoid Biosynthesis

Array of oxygenated eicosanoids with diverse biologic activities (see Table 26.2). The first enzyme in this pathway, PGH-synthase, is a hemoprotein that catalyzes both the addition of oxygen (to form PGG2) and the subsequent reduction (peroxidase activity) of the 15-position hydroperoxide to the 15-(S)-configuration alcohol (PGH2).7 PGH-synthase (also called cyclooxygenase-1 COX-1 or -2 COX-2 , and formerly PG-synthetase) has been the focus of intense investigation because of its key role as the first enzyme in the arachidonic acid cascade.8 It is this enzyme in constitutive (COX-1) or inducible form (COX-2) that is susceptible to inhibition by NSAIDs, leading to relief of pain, fever, and inflammation.6,9 This enzyme is also inhibited by the m-3 (omega-3) fatty acids (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA ) found in certain cold-water fish, which are provided commercially as nutritional supplements, leading to beneficial cardiovascular effects.10 Cyclooxygenase will

Pre Ketogenic Diet Session

The rigors of ketogenic diet management should be discussed during the pre-keto-genic diet session. The process of food preparation and food weighing should be explained. The caregiver should be provided with the information for purchasing a scale that weighs in tenths of a gram (0.1 g). A description of the typical meals and beverages, and the requirement for the omission of carbohydrate-rich foods, should be clearly communicated. The caregiver should be informed about the appropriate foods and nutritional supplements that must accompany the diet. The follow-up appointments required to monitor the diet safely should be reviewed. The caregiver should understand the possible adverse effects of the diet, including constipation, kidney stones, and difficulty with compliance (particularly with older children). The expected length of keto-genic diet therapy should also be reviewed in this session. Food allergies, intolerances, and cultural and religious preferences require special...

Vitamin Composition In Seaweed

The following summary is concerned with the most abundant seaweed vitamins which can sufficiently contribute to daily vitamin requirements, such as water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B12, and C and fat-soluble provitamins A (p-carotene) and E. Because some results are given for fresh samples, some for dry ones, there is quite disputable to compare the data presented thereby.

Anti Cancer Effect Of Tulasi Leaves In Lung Cancer

The items covered in the foregoing discussion are only a few of the widely known natural supplements with potential anticancer and chemopreventive properties. There are a large number of other phytochemicals and plant extracts reported to possess potential activities. Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), and shark cartilage are some examples suggested for cancer cure and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), and silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) are some examples known for cancer prevention properties.

About the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia

The American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (AHP) is very much a work for the common good. AHP was founded in 1995 as a nonprofit 501(c)(3) educational foundation dedicated to the advancement of knowledge and quality of medicinal herbal products and herbal dietary supplements. The purpose for doing this is to break down the many barriers and fears that prevent the complete integration of herbal medicines into our health care system and our lives. Humans and plants have coevolved for many millennia, and we believe that plant-based medicines are the most appropriate therapeutic agents for human use. Environmentally, plant-based medicines represent the only sustainable pharmacologically based form of medicine on the planet. The Therapeutic Compendium is designed to present a comprehensive and critical review of the available data on the efficacy and safety of the botanicals. As with the quality and standards portion of each monograph, the Therapeutic Compendium similarly encompasses the...

Water Insoluble Organic Solvents and Solids

Medium-chain triglycerides are commonly used to solubilize water-insoluble drugs. The mixture of ethanol and fractionated medium chain triglyceride of coconut oil is sometimes used as a solubilizing vehicle. A mixture of medium-chain triglycerides, polyethyleneglycol, and propylene glycol is also used as a solubilizing vehicle. Long-chain triglycerides are also commonly used to solubi-lize lipid soluble drugs in over-the-counter soft gelatin capsules such as soybean oil solubilizes vitamin A, and corn oil solubilizes 6 mg lutein, which is a natural carotenoid dietary supplement. Peppermint oil is used for both solubility and also to impart a favorable taste, such as in over-the-counter soft gelatin capsules containing 125 mg of simethicone for gas relief.

Adulterations Defined

The purity of food products, including dietary supplements, is regulated according to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) under the regulatory authority of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To paraphrase federal regulations, an adulteration is any component of a product whose identity is not as disclosed or whose quality is such that the material value of the product is compromised in any way in terms of quality, purity, or safety (Table 3.1). In botanical products, adulterations can include complete or partial substitution of one botanical for another, excessive amounts of impurities such as foreign matter (e.g., dirt, twigs, insect fragments), deteriorated or substandard material, contaminants (e.g., excessive microbial contamination), or any condition that would otherwise lessen the claimed or expected value of the product. As with all industries, both intentional and unintentional adulterations occur for a variety of reasons. Laws mandating that good manufacturing...

Ocular Surface And Tear Film

Vitamin C given as a dietary supplement has been found to improve the tear-film stability, tear secretion, and health of the ocular surface in general. In normal subjects, improvement was found in tear-film stability with daily administration of vitamin C tablet although the magnitude of improvement was somewhat smaller than a multi-vitamin trace element administered group (80). Peponis et al. found that oral vitamin C supplementation along with vitamin E, to non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients, attenuated free radical production, NO levels and improved the tear-function parameters significantly (81, 82). Vitamin C was also found to improve cholesterol-induced micro-circulatory changes in rabbits (83).

Colloidal Silver Dictionary

Alternative medicine Practices not generally recognized by the medical community as standard or conventional medical approaches and used instead of standard treatments. Alternative medicine includes the taking of dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, and herbal preparations the drinking of special teas and practices such as massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. nih Complementary and alternative medicine CAM. Forms of treatment that are used in addition to (complementary) or instead of (alternative) standard treatments. These practices are not considered standard medical approaches. CAM includes dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, herbal preparations, special teas, massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. NIH Complementary medicine Practices not generally recognized by the medical community as standard or conventional medical approaches and used to enhance or complement the standard treatments. Complementary medicine...

Cancer And Ayurveda An Overview

Humans have traditionally been dependent on nature for the healing and prevention of afflictions and revitalizing body systems for longevity. Natural supplements have been offering relief for nearly every known illness since the dawn of mankind, long before today's conventional medical practices. Swabhavoparana, Sanskrit for remission by nature, was clearly illustrated through the use of herbs and other natural secrets in Ayurveda, the oldest healing science known in India.3 Ayurveda is considered a branch of Atharva Veda, one of the four main texts of Hindu spirituality known as Vedas. Fairly comprehensive information about herbs has been recorded in Charaka Samhita and Shustruta Samhita, the two most important Vedic books. The description of cancer can be dated to earlier than 2000 B.C. by its description given in Atharva Veda under the name apachi. Sushruta, one of the reorganizers of Ayurveda (400 B.C.), described the superficial tumors under the name arbuda. The malignancies of...

Zinc and prostate cancer

Etiologic factors that initiate and enhance the progression of prostate malignancy are beginning to emerge. One major research focus is the role of diet and nutrition. Dietary factors possibly linked to prostate cancer are numerous however, the most provocative data focus attention upon those nutrients and phytochemicals involved in oxidative defense. A clear understanding of how anti-oxidants may protect the prostate from the genetic damage that is associated with tumor development remains unclear. It is well established that the consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of many cancers.133,134 These strong and reproducible epidemiological associations have led to an interest in determining the specific components within whole foods responsible for this observed reduced risk. However, supplementation with certain anti-oxidant compounds has not been successful. The anti-oxidant -carotene which when provided as a dietary supplement to populations at high risk...

Supplementation and Mortality

Losconzy et al. (7) reported no significant effect of vitamin C supplementation on all-cause mortality, coronary disease mortality, or cancer mortality, yet vitamin supplement use may have been underreported because subjects completed questionnaires for nonprescription medications only, not vitamin supplementation specifically. Two other large, prospective population studies did not specifically address vitamin C supplementation use, yet men in the highest stratum for vitamin C status, also representing the greatest number of vitamin C supplement users, had significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and cancer mortality (8,9). Women in the highest stratum for vitamin C status had

Series Preface

Many patients today are using alternative therapies to manage their diseases, and it is difficult for health care practitioners to keep up with this evolving field. Moreover, especially in the area of dietary supplements, the science behind the perceived benefits is lacking. This book is presented as an effort to provide a scientific perspective on the use of phytopharmaceuticals in battling cancer.


Interestingly, seaweed contains considerably high amounts of iron and copper compared to food sources renowned to contain those minerals such as, meat and spinach (Holland et al., 1993). In addition, a normal portion size of brown seaweed, which includes species such as Laminaria and Undaria, provides more than 50 of the recommended daily allowance of magnesium. Therefore, seaweed can be used as a food supplement to fulfill most of the important mineral requirements of the body.


Articles listed herein are official, and the standards set forth in the monographs apply to them only when the articles are intended or labeled for use as drugs, as nutritional or dietary supplements, or as medical devices and when bought, sold, or dispensed for these purposes or when labeled as conforming to this National Formulary.


Untoward effects of ephedrine include hypertension and insomnia. Tachyphylaxis may occur with repetitive dosing. Usual or higher-than-recommended doses may cause adverse cardiovascular effects in individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease. Herbal preparations containing ephedrine (ma huang, ephedra) are widely utilized these preparations vary in their content of ephedrine thus, their use may lead to inadvertent consumption of dangerously high doses of ephedrine and its isomers. Because of this, the FDA has banned the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedra in the U.S.

Vitamin B

The drugs colchicines, metformin, phenformin, and zidovudine (AZT) may decrease the levels of vitamin B12 in a patient (Webb et al. 1968, Adams et al. 1983, Flippo and Holder 1993, Baum et al. 1991). Histamine-2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors may decrease absorption of vitamin B12 from food, but not absorption from dietary supplements (Marcuard et al. 1994, Streeter et al. 1982, Aymard et al. 1988).


The average lag time was 81.6 min (SD 20 min, range 54-133 min). As shown in Fig. 6.1, the lag time for men using vitamin supplements averaged 11.6 min longer than the non-users but the difference was not statistically significant (P 0.18, t-test). In subsequent analyses, the relationships Fig. 6.1. Lag time before maximal LDL oxidation comparing vitamin supplement users with non-users. Fig. 6.1. Lag time before maximal LDL oxidation comparing vitamin supplement users with non-users.

Calcitriol Rocaltrol

Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets and osteoporosis. When the amount of vitamin D3 produced in the body is insufficient, it needs to be obtained from food sources such as fatty fish or from dietary supplements. Another member of the vitamin D family, vitamin D2, which is derived from fungal and plant sources, is often used instead of vitamin D3, although it is less effective. Calcitriol is a useful treatment for osteoporosis in older patients with an impaired capacity to make it from vitamin D3.


In addition to nutritional supplements for aged individuals, an altered pattern of food intake for younger individuals may delay aging. This altered pattern involves caloric restriction (CR). Studies show that CR delays aging in insects, fish, spiders, water fleas, rats and mice (McCay et al., 1989 Weindruch, 1996 Lass et al, 1998). In rodents, CR attenuates the loss of muscle mass that accompanies age-related disease such as diabetes and hypertension (Weindruch and Sohal, 1997 Weindruch and Walford, 1998). In addition, it has been shown that CR reduces age-related ROS production and oxidative damage (Sohal and Weindruch, 1996 Leeuwenburgh et al., 1997 Lass et al., 1998 Zainal et al., 2000 Gredilla et al., 2001 Drew et al., 2003).


More than 300 plants are known to contain compounds exhibiting estrogenic activity 26 . Typical examples of such phytoestrogens are the isoflavones GEN and daidzein (DAI, Fig. 4), prominent in soy beans, the coumestan COM, present in sprouts of soy beans and alfalfa, and lignans, present in oilseeds, vegetables, and fruit. The two major plant lignans, secoisolariciresinol (SEC) and matairesinol (MAT, Fig. 4), are metabolized by intestinal bacteria to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL). Depending on the diet, some phytoestrogens may be ingested in considerable amounts, e.g., GEN and DAI with soy-based food and SEC and MAT with food containing flaxseed, and lead to plasma levels in the micromolar range 27 . Recently, isoflavones and lignans have gained interest due to their putative beneficial health effects. Consequently, there is an increasing tendency to consume phytoestrogens as dietary supplements.


This review regarding the antiasthma activity of micro- and macroalgae provides an insight about asthma using the information published up-to-date. It is very clear that macroalgae provide a variety of biological activities against numerous diseases and have been reported as potential sources to be used in human-related dietary supplement production. Further, various bioactive compounds have been isolated and identified in marine microalgae. Hence, marine micro- and macroalgae can be developed as health promoting nutritional foods for the prevention of anti-inflammatory-related diseases. However, more deep studies are needed to be done regarding the microalgae to identify their molecular basis of the mechanisms, and clinical trials should be recommended before using these valuable agents.


Preparation is a drug dosage form, a dietary supplement, or a finished device. It is the finished or partially finished preparation of one or more substances formulated for use on or for the patient or consumer (see General Notices and Requirements). official substance includes an active drug entity, a dietary supplement, or a pharmaceutic ingredient (see also NF 23) or a component of a finished device. active ingredient usually refers to chemicals, substances, or other components of articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of diseases in humans or other animals or for use as dietary supplements.


Oxidation plays a key role in the initiation of carcinogenesis in biological systems, so it should not be surprising that antioxidants play an important role in the inhibition of carcinogenesis.54 A broad variety of antioxidants like flavonoids, isothiocyanates, anthocyanadines, polyphenols, CoQ10, etc. have demonstrated significant activity in the prevention of cancer induction. Some of these antioxidants are more potent than vitamin supplements. For example, phytochemicals such as flavonoids effect several-fold better protection than vitamin C against oxidative DNA. Natural herbal supplements also exhibit beneficial synergistic effects when used along with vitamins and minerals.55 The recent literature has indicated that several natural products of plant origin with a broad spectrum of structural types not only effect chemoprevention of carcinogenesis but also inhibit the growth of established tumors.56 The molecular basis for the interaction of natural supplements with a number of...

Coenzyme Q10

In countries like Japan, it is a drug prescribed for those having suffered from heart disease. However, in the U.S., it is a dietary supplement available from health food stores or mail-order businesses. Coenzyme Q10 has been shown to have both anticancer and immune-system enhancing properties in animals, and the results suggest that it might inhibit tumor-associated cytokines.78 In one study, 6 out of 32 high-risk breast cancer patients obtained partial to complete regression when supplemented with 90- to 390-mg daily doses of CoQ10.79 A patient treated with a daily dose of 390mg for 1 month showed no sign of palpable tumor mass. Another patient with intraductal cancer showed complete remission following treatment for 3 months with a daily dose of 300mg, and there was also no trace of distant metastases.79 One study involving breast cancer patients showed that CoQ10 concentrations in tumor tissues were significantly depleted compared with the surrounding normal tissues....

Soy Isoflavones

Soy-rich diets have been credited with the low incidence of breast, stomach, and prostate cancers in Asian populations compared with their much higher prevalence in the Western hemisphere, where soy consumption is low.139 There has been a multifold increase in research studies correlating consumption of soybean products to prevention of breast, colon, uterine, and prostate cancers. Soy was found to be one of the potent natural supplements with cancer-prevention properties.140 It is a host of two important isoflavones, namely genistein and daidzein. These substances are shown to have various anticarcinogenic properties, including prevention of oxidation, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, triggering of apoptosis, regulation of gene transcription, modulation of transcription factors, antiangiogenesis, and inhibition of DNA topoisomerage.141 Daidzein and genistein down-regulate the expression of prostate androgen-regulated transcript-1 (PART-1) gene, a possible prostate...

O Introduction

Two organizations provide guidelines for daily vitamin intake in the United States. The first, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), regulates the labeling of foods and dietary supplements with respect to their nutritional content, including vitamins. The current labeling requirements for vitamins, established following the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 and published in the Code of Federal Regulations13 (CFR) under Title 21, Section 101.9, requires that the vitamin content of food and dietary supplements be listed as a percentage of the daily value (DV). The DV for nutrients is determined by using the daily reference value (DRV) if the nutrient is a source of energy, such as protein, carbohydrates, and fats, or by using the reference daily intake (RDI) for vitamins and minerals. The RDI replaces the previously used term, USRDA (United States Recommended Daily Allowance), to prevent confusion with the RDAs (see later) published by the National Academy of...


A prospective study, the Longitudinal Study of Cataract (n 764 participants), reported a 31 lower risk of newly diagnosed nuclear cataract by regular intake of multivitamins, and an 50 risk reduction with regular use of vitamin E supplements or with higher blood vitamin E levels (29). In the prospective Beaver Dam Eye Study cohort (n 1354 participants), no association between vitamin E intake and risk of cataract was observed, but blood vitamin E levels were inversely correlated with nuclear cataract (30), and a lower risk of cataract among long-term users of multivitamins or any dietary supplement containing vitamin C or E was observed (31).

Functional Foods

As a consequence of the attention given to functional foods, the West is giving renewed attention to the Eastern concept of food as medicine. A medical food in the US is defined as 'a food which is formulated to be consumed or administered enterally under the supervision of a physician and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease' (FDA, 1996). In Asia, the term 'medicinal food' simply means food used for medical purposes (Weng and Chen, 1996). In traditional Chinese medicine, food and medicine are of equal importance in preventing and treating disease. In the West, functional foods are distinctly not medical foods but are viewed loosely as having distinctly healthful properties beyond basic nutrition. The blurring of boundaries between Eastern and Western ideas about food and health is an indication of the need for more flexible approaches to diet and health, and it has the added benefit of focusing positively on well being.


As discussed extensively above, the vast majority of small clinical trials convincingly demonstrate a beneficial role of vitamin E when given as a dietary supplement to women with preeclampsia or patients suffering from chronic diseases including diabetes and age-related degenerative diseases.

Atropa belladonna L

Belladonna, commonly known as deadly nightshade, has been used medicinally for centuries. Although it is not generally found in herbal dietary supplements because of its potential for toxicity, it was historically highly regarded as among the most effective of herbal gastrointestinal antispasmodics (Weiss 1988). The crude botanical consists of the flowering ends of the twigs. Therefore pieces of stem and the highly characteristic seeds are present in most commercial lots. The seeds but not the stems are conspicuous in powdered material.

Anthony T Diplock

Of formation and proliferation of primary radical species derived from molecular oxygen. The second, which involves the two vitamins C and E, and probably the carotenoids, is concerned with the prevention of the proliferation of secondary radicals in chain reactions such as lipid peroxidation, initiated and driven by primary radicals. The third level is the enzymatic prevention of formation of secondary radicals from chain-terminated derivatives and enables removal of such molecules from an environment in which metal-catalysed reactions might cause further oxidative damage. The protective mechanism, viewed as a whole, is thus dependent on the supply from dietary sources of certain specific minerals and nutrients and it is thus susceptible to being compromised by the failure to supply through the diet one or more of these essential substances which have been given the name of antioxidant nutrients. However, these minerals are in general highly conserved because excretion under...

Cancer prevention

Much work has been directed at elucidating the mechanism of selenium anticancer activity. Studies have used different forms of selenium, commonly sodium selenite and SeMet, which are used in dietary supplements. Observed differences in the type of activity for each form and studies showing contradictory results have hindered finding a simple answer. Generally it is considered that, at nutritional levels, selenium in selenoproteins acts as an anti-oxidant, enhancing cell growth and immune activity. At supranutritional levels, selenium metabolites behave as pro-oxidants and inhibit cell growth, and at even higher concentrations they become toxic.47,48 Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to account for the chemopreventative properties of selenium. These include induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest by low-weight selenium metabolites, such as methylselenol 47,52 55 activation of Ref. 1 by selenomethionine - which leads to increased DNA repair 56 inhibition of enzymes such as


Garlic (Allium sativum) has a history as a medicinal agent going back thousands of years. Hippocrates, Dioscorides, and other prominent medical experts of ancient and medieval eras deciphered its medicinal uses.60 Garlic is mentioned in the Bible, and it may be one of the most widely used natural supplements. Its first known origin may be Central Asia (3000 B.C.), later spreading to other parts of the world.60 It is a regular part of the diet for most people in Asian and Middle Eastern countries. Its potential therapeutic uses include antimicrobial, antithrombotic, hypolipidemic, anti-arthritic, hypoglycemic, and antitumor activity.61

Rs171a463 2011

This text is dedicated to Paul Coates and Joseph Betz of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), National Institutes of Health (NIH). They recognized the value of this work in helping to promote botanical microscopy as a quality assurance tool, provided funding, and expressed unrivaled patience in its completion. The text is also dedicated to

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is probably the most effective, least toxic water-soluble antioxidant identified in mammalian systems (Levine, 1986 Frei et al., 1988). Lens concentrations of vitamin C (mmol l-1) are many times higher than in plasma or other tissues and are related to dietary intake in humans (Taylor et al., 1991, 1997). The concentration of vitamin C in the lens is increased with dietary supplements beyond levels achieved in persons who already consume more than two times the recommended daily allowance (RDA) (60 mg day-1) for vitamin C (Taylor et al., 1991). However, lens and vitamin C levels may be compromised upon ageing and or cataractogenesis (Berger et al., 1988, 1989). Although biochemically plausible, there are no data to demonstrate that vitamin C shortage induces damage in the lens in vitro or in vivo (Blondin and Taylor, 1987 Garland, 1991 Naraj and Monnier, 1992).

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