Treatment Of Alcoholdependence

The -opioid receptor antagonist Naltrexone and Acamprosate, which interacts primarily with the glutamatergic system, are the two most commonly used drugs for secondary relapse prevention in alcohol dependence in Europe. A number of double blind studies conducted during the last decade have shown that both, Naltrexone and Acamprosate prevent relapse in a relevant portion of patients - but not in all (Garbutt et al., 1999, Berglund et al., 2003). The results of recent meta-analyses suggest that...

The History

The idea that mood disorders are heritable disturbances dates back to Hippocrates theory of constitutional types the hypothesis that psycho-pathological traits could be inherited (known as Atavism) was present since the origins of psychiatry, as suggested by the observation that affected subjects clustered in families. However, a more precise hypothesis did not appear until the 19th century (Cooper 1986). Wilhelm Griesinger (1817-1868) distinguished in fact between traumatic external events and...

Phenotype Definition

The term alcoholism, which covers a set of complex relationships with alcohol, is no more used in the international literature because of its heterogeneity. An expert group from the WHO, since 1976 (Edward et al., 1976), decided that it was important to distinguish the alcoholic behaviour itself, the syndrome of alcohol-dependence, and the multiple consequences of chronic alcohol intoxication, concerning somatic, psychic and social domains. This perspective was a core element in the building of...

Psychopharmacogenetics Of Schizophrenia And Psychosis101

Overview with respect to specific 4.2. Specific 5.3. Weight 5.5. Various side 6. ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE AND OTHER Lucie Mar chal, Isabelle Le Ber, Didier Hannequin, Dominique Campion and Alexis Brice 3. COMPLEMENTARY 5. DOMINANTLY INHERITED FAMILIAL ALZHEIMER DISEASE 151 5.1. APP 5.2. Presenilin 1 (PS1) gene and Presenilin 2 5.3. Clinical characteristic of dominantly inherited alzheimer disease 154 6. BIOLOGICAL 6.1. Amyloid cascade hypothesis APP 6.2. APP transgenic 6.3. Presenilin 7....

Neurotransmitter Systems Involved In Alcohol Central Effects

Neurotransmitter systems involved in alcohol dependence include pathways triggered by the excitatory amino-acid glutamate, the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, the monoaminergic neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonine, noradrenaline as well as endogenous opioids, anandamide and other neuropeptides (Nevo and Hamon 1995). Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter. While it can be detected throughout the brain, its main areas of expression are the cortex and the limbic system (Tsai and...

Info

Gaq Adenosine (A2A, A2B, A3) 98, 99, 41 Bombesin (GRP-R, NMB-R, BRS-3) 46, 103, 104 Cholecystokinin (CCKA, now CCK2 CCKB, now CCK1) 106, 55, 107 Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH-R1 a) 20 Glutamate (mGluR1, mGluR5) 110, 111 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-R) 112, 113 (continued) Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) 114 Platelet-activating factor (PAF) 82 Prostaglandin (TP, IP, FP, EP3D) 32, 33 Serotonin (5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C) 34, 35, 36 Substance P (NK1R or SPR) 37, 121 Thyroid Stimulating...

Introduction

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent childhood behavioural disease affecting approximately 3-5 of school-age children (A.P.A., 1994). It also poses a major problem for adults who were either first diagnosed later in life or have suffered from persisting symptoms from childhood (Faraone et al., 2000). The cardinal symptoms of ADHD may be classified into three major clusters - inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (A.P.A., 1994). These symptom clusters...

Serotonin 1a Receptor And Antidepressant Anxiolytic Response

While multiple lines of evidence implicate the serotonin 1A receptor (5HT1A) in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression as well as in the mechanism of action of anxiolytics antidepressants, its relevance to the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs has been a matter of considerable debate (Griebel 1995 Hensler 2003 Hjorth et al. 2000 Lesch et al. 2003). The 5HT1A receptor is encoded by an intronless gene (HTR1A) located on human chromosome 5q12.3. Several rare missense polymorphisms,...

Genetics Of Anxiety And Related Disorders 21 Anxietyrelated traits in mood disorders

A large body of evidence from family, twin, and adoptee studies has been accumulated that a complex genetic component is involved in anxiety-related traits and in the liability to anxiety spectrum disorders. While genetic research has typically focused either on normal personality characteristics or on psychiatric disorders, with few investigations evaluating the genetic and environmental relationship between the two, it is of critical importance to answer the questions whether a certain...

Nadh

ALDH acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. MEOS microsomal ethanol oxidizing system. CYP2E1 cytochrome P450 isoform. The interplay between the kinetics of absorption, distribution and elimination is important in determining the pharmacodynamic responses to alcohol. There is a large degree of variability in alcohol absorption, distribution and metabolism, as a result of both genetic and environmental factors. The between-individual variation in alcohol metabolic rates is,...

The Classifications Of Bipolar Disorders

The DSM-IV distinguishes between Bipolar I Disorder (BPAD I), Bipolar II Disorder (BPAD II), Cyclothymic Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. BPAD I is defined as episodes of mania (with or without major depressive episode) and BPAD II as recurrent episodes of major depression with hypomanic episodes. Cyclothymic Disorder is defined as the presence, for at least 2 years, of numerous periods with hypomanic symptoms and numerous periods of depressive symptoms that do not meet...

Conclusion And Perspectives For Future Research

Different approaches are available to identify genetic markers that could contribute to the response to mood stabilizers. The priority is a considerable need for improved methodology in case-control association studies. The different ways to improve it are discussed elsewhere (Lerer and Macciardi, 2002 Oswald et al., 2003). In the specific field of pharmacogenetics of BPAD, we will have to improve the specific design of mood stabilizers pharmacogenetic studies. In the classical studies,...

Perspectives For Pharmacogenetic Research Into Eating Disorders And Obesity

Drugs which have been available and licensed for obesity treatment until now are only moderately effective and may have serious side-effects. There is, however, great need for drugs which are on the long term both safe and effective with regard to weight loss and longstanding weight maintenance. Presently, only two drugs are licensed in most Western countries for long term use in obesity management orlistat and sibutramine. Orlistat is an inhibitor of gastric and pancreas lipase, resulting in a...

Generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is defined by excessive and uncontrollable worry about a number of life events or activities for least 6 month, accompanied by at least 3 of 6 associated symptoms of negative affect or tension, such as restlessness, fatigability, concentration difficulties, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance. Relative to other anxiety and mood disorders, GAD is more likely to show a gradual onset and or life-long history of symptoms. While early ages of onset...

Genetic Variability Of Serotonin Transporter Function

In humans, transcriptional activity of the 5HTT gene is modulated by a polymorphic repetitive element, 5HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) located upstream of the transcription start site. Comparison of different mammalian species confirmed the presence of the 5HTTLPR in simian primates but not in prosimian primates and other mammals (Lesch et al. 1997). The majority of alleles are composed of either 14 or 16-repeat units (short and long allele, respectively), while alleles with 15,...

Frontotemporal Dementias

During the past decade, neurologists and psychiatrists have become increasingly aware that a significant proportion the degenerative dementias are of the non-Alzheimer type. The frontotemporal dementias, characterized by progressive personality changes and language impairment related to a frontotemporal atrophy, account for approximately 5-20 of these diseases (Jackson 1996 Sleegers 2004). The first pathological description of a particular form of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was made by...