Serotonin 1a Receptor And Antidepressant Anxiolytic Response

While multiple lines of evidence implicate the serotonin 1A receptor (5HT1A) in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression as well as in the mechanism of action of anxiolytics antidepressants, its relevance to the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs has been a matter of considerable debate (Griebel 1995 Hensler 2003 Hjorth et al. 2000 Lesch et al. 2003). The 5HT1A receptor is encoded by an intronless gene (HTR1A) located on human chromosome 5q12.3. Several rare missense polymorphisms,...

Genetics Of Anxiety And Related Disorders 21 Anxietyrelated traits in mood disorders

A large body of evidence from family, twin, and adoptee studies has been accumulated that a complex genetic component is involved in anxiety-related traits and in the liability to anxiety spectrum disorders. While genetic research has typically focused either on normal personality characteristics or on psychiatric disorders, with few investigations evaluating the genetic and environmental relationship between the two, it is of critical importance to answer the questions whether a certain...

Nadh

ALDH acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. MEOS microsomal ethanol oxidizing system. CYP2E1 cytochrome P450 isoform. The interplay between the kinetics of absorption, distribution and elimination is important in determining the pharmacodynamic responses to alcohol. There is a large degree of variability in alcohol absorption, distribution and metabolism, as a result of both genetic and environmental factors. The between-individual variation in alcohol metabolic rates is,...

The Classifications Of Bipolar Disorders

The DSM-IV distinguishes between Bipolar I Disorder (BPAD I), Bipolar II Disorder (BPAD II), Cyclothymic Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. BPAD I is defined as episodes of mania (with or without major depressive episode) and BPAD II as recurrent episodes of major depression with hypomanic episodes. Cyclothymic Disorder is defined as the presence, for at least 2 years, of numerous periods with hypomanic symptoms and numerous periods of depressive symptoms that do not meet...

Introduction

Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In the past decade, many advances have been made in the understanding of AD etiology. Advances in neuropathology have helped to accurately describe the lesions responsible for this disease. More recently, the identification of mutations involved in familial early onset AD (EOAD), has permitted to characterize the physiopathological cascade. In the future, it could be possible to develop new therapeutic strategies targeted against the...

Conclusion And Perspectives For Future Research

Different approaches are available to identify genetic markers that could contribute to the response to mood stabilizers. The priority is a considerable need for improved methodology in case-control association studies. The different ways to improve it are discussed elsewhere (Lerer and Macciardi, 2002 Oswald et al., 2003). In the specific field of pharmacogenetics of BPAD, we will have to improve the specific design of mood stabilizers pharmacogenetic studies. In the classical studies,...

Perspectives For Pharmacogenetic Research Into Eating Disorders And Obesity

Drugs which have been available and licensed for obesity treatment until now are only moderately effective and may have serious side-effects. There is, however, great need for drugs which are on the long term both safe and effective with regard to weight loss and longstanding weight maintenance. Presently, only two drugs are licensed in most Western countries for long term use in obesity management orlistat and sibutramine. Orlistat is an inhibitor of gastric and pancreas lipase, resulting in a...

Generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is defined by excessive and uncontrollable worry about a number of life events or activities for least 6 month, accompanied by at least 3 of 6 associated symptoms of negative affect or tension, such as restlessness, fatigability, concentration difficulties, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance. Relative to other anxiety and mood disorders, GAD is more likely to show a gradual onset and or life-long history of symptoms. While early ages of onset...

Genetic Variability Of Serotonin Transporter Function

In humans, transcriptional activity of the 5HTT gene is modulated by a polymorphic repetitive element, 5HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) located upstream of the transcription start site. Comparison of different mammalian species confirmed the presence of the 5HTTLPR in simian primates but not in prosimian primates and other mammals (Lesch et al. 1997). The majority of alleles are composed of either 14 or 16-repeat units (short and long allele, respectively), while alleles with 15,...

Frontotemporal Dementias

During the past decade, neurologists and psychiatrists have become increasingly aware that a significant proportion the degenerative dementias are of the non-Alzheimer type. The frontotemporal dementias, characterized by progressive personality changes and language impairment related to a frontotemporal atrophy, account for approximately 5-20 of these diseases (Jackson 1996 Sleegers 2004). The first pathological description of a particular form of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was made by...