Libor Vitek and Harvey A Schwertner

*Fourth Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of

Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Diagnostics, Charles University of Prague, U Nemocnice 2, Praha 2, 128 08, Prague, Czech Republic 'Clinical Research, Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland AFB, Texas

1. Abstract 2

2. Introduction

3. Heme Catabolism

4. Heme Oxygenase

4.1. Heme Oxygenase Induction, Upregulation, and Gene Transfer

4.2. HO-1 Gene Promoter Polymorphism in the Pathogenesis of Oxidative Stress-Mediated Conditions

5. Hemodynamic and Cytoprotective Effects of Carbon Monoxide

6. Cytoprotective Effects of Biliverdin Reductase

7. Biological Effects of Bilirubin

7.1. Experimental Studies

7.2. Human Studies

8. Factors Affecting Serum Bilirubin Concentrations

9. Therapeutic Agents Affecting HO-1 Activity, CO, and Bilirubin Production. . . 10. Conclusions

References 38

Abbreviations cGMP CHD CO

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