Drinking Water Ebooks Catalog

Water Freedom System

Water Freedom System is a valuable guide that instructs you on to build your oasis. You will get enough water even when there is a shortage in your town. You will have an abundant water supply for your family, animals, and even your garden. This precious device will ensure that you don't have to stockpiles or go through the tedious process of harvesting rainwater. It can provide you with 60 gallons of clean and freshwater every day. You don't have to have previous experience or skills to build or use Water Freedom System. It was designed on a concept used majorly in emergency and home purpose, meaning you can take in the maximum of three hours to build the device. Water Freedom System generator will derive water from the natural air easily, so can be sure to have pure clean water for consumption. The device can be used in any location, even the driest desert. More here...

Water Freedom System Summary


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Author: Chris Burns
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Prediction Models for log P in Other Solvent Water Systems of Neutral Compounds

Different balance between intermolecular forces can be accessible via partition coefficients measured in solvents systems other than the traditional 1-octanol water. Therefore there was a growing interest in the partition processes in several solvent water systems 64, 65 and in particular the critical quartet of solvents which was designed to merge the main information about a solute concerning its partition and transport. Only a few studies have been performed to characterize the lipophilicity profile of new chemical entities in different solvent water systems and consequently the number of methods attempting to model such partitioning systems is limited. Since the Alog Poct-alk is a useful parameter to characterize the polarity of a compounds 31 and to estimate brain permeation 26 , the prediction of log Palk retained the attention of researchers. The fragmental approach of Rekker was first used to derive fragment constants for the alkane water system 36, 38 . Another way to access...

Drinking Water

Groundwater is vulnerable to pollution by chemicals carried by rainwater, leaching from waste sites or from waste water carrying industrial or agricultural effluent. Treatment of drinking water may remove some, but not all, of these contaminants. Some polycarbonate or metal water pipes that are lined with epoxy resin lacquers may release bisphenol A.

Nutritional Biochemistry And Metabolism

Copper is an essential trace metal found in the Cu(II) and Cu(I) states in all living organisms. Table 1 presents average values for concentrations of copper in water, soil, and different kinds of foodstuffs. For humans and other mammals, the best plant food sources are seeds, including whole grains, nuts, and beans, where (like most trace elements and vitamins) it is concentrated in the germ and bran. The best animal food sources are shellfish and liver. Even with copper piping, drinking water does not normally contribute significantly to intake (13).

Norepinephrine is Required for Fetal Life

Consistent with the specificity of need for norepinephrine during fetal life is the fact that most TH-null fetuses can be rescued by replacement of some of the missing norepinephrine by administration of the catecholamine precursor L-Dopa to the pregnant heterozygote dams in their the drinking water 5,6,8 . The exogenous L-Dopa is converted first to dopamine and dopamine is subsequently converted to norepinephrine providing two catecholamines. Administration of L-threo-3,4 dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS) is also effective in the rescue of the TH-null pups to birth without producing dopamine. DOPS is converted directly to norepinephrine by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. An extremely effective rescue is provided by an even more specifically targeted drug. This is isoproterenol, the adrenergic drug that acts as an agonist at p receptors. Isoproterenol dissolved in the drinking water of the pregnant dams rescues nearly 100 per cent of expected TH-null mice in our experience 11,12 .

How Might I Be Exposed To Boron

You can be exposed to boron in food (mainly vegetables and fruits), water, air, and consumer products. Infants, in particular, can be exposed to borates in products used to control cockroaches. Since boron is taken up from the soil by plants, it can enter the food chain. Although boron has been found in animal tissue, it does not accumulate and it is not likely that eating fish or meat will increase the boron levels in your body. Boron has been found in groundwater at very low levels. Background levels of boron up to 5 parts of boron in 1 million parts (ppm) of surface water have been reported. However, in dry areas where there are natural boron-rich deposits, boron concentrations can be as high as 360 ppm. No data were found on the occurrence of boron compounds in surface or groundwater. While current drinking water surveys do not report any levels of boron, it has been found in tap water in the past. Levels reported in drinking water were less than 1-3 ppm. There is potential for...

How Can Boron Enter And Leave My Body

Boron can enter your body when you eat food (fruit and vegetables) breathe borate dust in the air, and when damaged skin comes in contact with it. Because very small amounts of boron are present in all drinking water, boron can enter your body when you drink water. When boron enters the body by mouth or when you breathe borate dust, it goes to the intestines where it is passed to various parts of the body including the liver, brain, and kidney. No information is available on what factors affect how fast boron enters the body. However, animal studies suggest boron readily enters the body after contact with damaged skin. Most of the boron leaves the body in urine primarily from food eaten. Over half of the boron taken by mouth can be found in urine within 24 hours and the other half can be detected for up to 4 days. Boron compounds can be found in urine up to 23 days if you are accidentally exposed to very large amounts.

Measurement of Lipophilicity

In 1959, Gaudette and Brodie 7 realized both the possibility for using a partition coefficient to model lipophilic character, and the relevance of lipophilicity to pharmacokinetic processes. They found a parallel between the heptane buffer partition coefficients of certain drugs, and their rate of entry into cerebrospinal fluid. However, generalised use of logP as a lipophilicity parameter did not come about until after 1964, with the Hansch octanol water system remaining to this day the standard for both experimental and theoretical investigations. In 1971, Leo, Hansch and Elkins 8 published the first comprehensive review of partition coefficients, with a tabulation of nearly 6000 values, including their own measurements on some 800 in the octanol water system. The review incorporated an account of the shake-flask method of measurement, which was discussed more exhaustively in a 1973 monograph by Purcell, Bass and Clayton 9 . Lipophilicity has, since 1964, been traditionally measured...

Waste Management Practices in the United States

Common methods of on-site solvent waste disposal in the United States involve direct releases into the environment. In the case of on-site releases, the emissions are usually pre-treated via scrubbers and incinerators or involve the direct release of solvents which do not pose long term environmental, health, and safety risks. These include stack and fugitive emissions to the air, direct releases to water (rivers, lakes), and releases to land (landfills, surface impoundments). Another solvent disposal method is the injection of solvent wastes underground. Underground injections involve the release of hazardous liquid wastes into the earth, usually below the lowest available source of underground drinking water. There are instances in which certain wastes are injected above underground sources of drinking water, and until recently no distinction was made between the two. This is interesting as the two methods pose different environmental risks 11 . In the United States, underground...

Chromatography in the Presence of Octanol

Octanol water cannot fully model the combination of charge and polarity that occurs in phospholipid head groups, and it is not sensitive to the hydrogen-bond donor character of solutes 26 . Partitioning into other partition solvents, liposomes and immobilized artificial membranes have all been used to extend the partition model. However, Log P octanol water is by far the most widely used descriptor for lipophilicity. Log P octanol water values have been measured for large numbers of compounds, and measured values for many developed drugs have been published. This database of measured values has been used to train software for the calculation of log P from structure alone, and several commercial programs are available for this purpose. In view of these factors, it seems desirable for high-throughput screening to explore the use of chromatographic methods for log D measurement that as far as possible are made in the octanol water system.

Practical determination of partition coefficients

Partition coefficient values are most frequently calculated using an octanol aqueous buffer model. Alternative systems may be used depending on the nature of the investigation. For example, the most commonly used buffer is pH 7.4, however a buffer with a pH of 6.5 may be used if the investigation for gastrointestinal absorption. Furthermore, the blood-brain barrier has been modelled using alkane water systems. However, the poor solubility of many compounds in alkanes is a severe limitation on the use of this model system.

Environmental Quality Regulations

Many countries also have stringent regulations governing the quality of drinking water. Although these increasingly place limitations on a range of micro contaminants there are no countries at present that explicitly include pharmaceuticals in these listings. In Australia 33 , the Environment Protection and Heritage Council, the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, and the Australian Health Ministers' Conference have published, in connection with water reuse, draft drinking water standards for 87 individual pharmaceuticals. These are based on human toxicological data and range from 0.01 gL-1 to 35mgL-1. In the United States, contaminant levels in drinking water are regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The EPA regularly reviews these contaminants, and in 2008 they released a third draft Contaminant Candidate List for public review and comment 34 . As part of the process to develop the list, the Agency evaluated pharmaceuticals and personal care products to identify...

Key Historical Developments in Artificial Membrane Permeability Measurement

However, a serious drawback in using BLMs as a model system is that they are extremely fragile (requiring a vibration-damping platform and a Faraday cage), and tedious to prepare. That notwithstanding, Walter and Gutknecht 7 studied the permeation of a series of simple carboxylic acids across egg PC decane BLMs. Intrinsic permeability coefficients, Po, were determined from tracer fluxes, and a straight-line relationship was observed between log Po and hexadecane water partition coefficients, log Kp, for all but the smallest carboxylic acid (formic) log Po 0.90 log Kp + 0.87. Using a similar BLM system, Xiang and Anderson 8 studied the pH-dependent transport of a series of a-methylene-substituted homologs of p-toluic acid. These authors compared the permeabilities to partition coefficients determined in octanol , hexadecane , hexadecene , and 1,9-decadiene water systems. The lowest correlation was found with octanol, whilst with the hexadecane water system, log Po 0.85 log Kp 0.64 (r2...

Summary Of Chargedspecies Partitioning In Octanolwater

A review article with this title appeared in 1983 369 . It's an old question, one not fully resolved What does the charged-species partitioning seen in octanol-water systems have to do with biological systems If getting to the receptor site involves passing through many lipid membranes, and if the pH partition hypothesis is to hold, the answer to the question is a resounding ''Nothing.'' If the active site is in the outer leaflet of the apical membrane and the drug is orally introduced, or

Membrane Based Systems

Liposomes were introduced as models for cellular membranes in 1965 (Bangham, 1993) and have been proposed as an alternative for octanol in drug partitioning studies (Balon et al., 1999). It has been pointed that partitioning measured in a liposome-water system may not always reflect transmembrane permeation (Palm et al., 1998) as solutes may associate with the membrane without entering the bilayer (Jacobs and White, 1989). While information of such interactions might be predictive for drug-induced membrane effects (Grinius et al., 2002), the development of a high-throughput method does not seem technically feasible.

Lipophilic substituent constants p

Where PH and PX are the partition coefficients of the standard compound and its monosubstituted derivative, respectively. For example, the value of p for the chloro group of chlorobenzene could be calculated from the partition coefficients for benzene and chlorobenzene in the octanol water system The values of p will vary depending on the solvent system used to determine the partition coefficients. However, most p values are determined using the n-octanol water system. A positive p value indicates that a substituent has a higher lipophilicity than hydrogen and so will probably increase the concentration of the compound in the n-octanol layer and by inference its concentration in the lipid material of biological systems. Conversely, a negative p value shows that the substituent has a lower lipophilicity than hydrogen and so probably increases the concentration of the compound in the aqueous media of biological systems.

Vinylidene Chloride VDC

VDC, an air and drinking-water contaminant (EPA 1982 US EPA 1986b), is a very potent liver toxicant. The metabolism of VDC has been extensively studied (Henschler and Bonse 1977 Leibman and Ortiz 1977 Filser and Bolt 1979). VDC is metabolized by CYP450 enzymes to reactive metabolites that are responsible for

Testicular Structure and Hormones

It is also clear that it is difficult to relate cause and effect to any specific chemical since, with the exception of point source effluents, many waterways contain a multitude of chemicals, of which the active endocrine disruptor may not be that which has been measured in the water or tissue. For such reasons, many studies have used in vitro experiments in which isolated tissue, either from a control animal or one captured in a polluted water system, is exposed to a single pollutant in the laboratory. Such experiments have shown significant disruption to testicular activity by a wide range of xenobiotics, including cadmium, lindane, DDT, cythion, hexadrin and PCBs.2

Contemporary Issues Relating to the Use of Cellulose in Blood Purification

The blending of water with an electrolyte concentrate. Tap water is unsuitable for use and requires further treatment to reduce its chemical contaminant levels to those recommended in International Standards (ISO 13959 2009 Water for haemodialysis and related therapies). Such treatment removes the chlorine added to drinking water and paves the way for the proliferation of bacteria and the formation of biofilm in the distribution network unless there is rigorous attention to the sterilisation and design of the water distribution network. Bacterial proliferation leads to the formation of biofilm, which once formed is difficult to eradicate.

Introduction a Need for an Accurate Method for Partition Coefficient Measurements

The role of drug lipophilicity in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is both primordial and ubiquitous, as well documented in the literature 1-3 . While partition coefficients measured in n-octanol water systems (Poa) have encountered enormous success in the studies of drug lipophilicity and structure-activity relationships, new structural parameters arising from a combination of partition coefficients in different solvent systems such as Alog Poct_a k ( log Poa - log Paikane) are emerging as structural determinants particularly in blood-brain barrier permeation 4 , gastrointestinal absorption 5 and skin penetration 6 of drugs (see Chapter 14). At this point, an essential condition is to determine precisely and accurately partition coefficients in each solvent system to minimize the errors in, for example, Alog Poa-aik Partition, to be well distinguished from adsorption, chromatography has been explored as an alternative means for measuring lipophilicity. In particular,...

CrosstaLk Between GCs and COX2 in the Control of Synaptic Plasticity and Learning Processes

In the neocortex (Ambrogi Lorenzini et al., 1999 Dash et al., 2004 Gatley et al., 1996 Knowlton and Fanselow, 1998 Roozendaal, 2003). Endocan-nabinoids are key players in the processes ofmemory extinction and reverse learning (Bitencourt et al., 2008 Riedel and Davies, 2005 Rueda-Orozco et al., 2008 Shiflett et al., 2004 Takahashi et al., 2005 Varvel et al., 2005, 2007 Wise et al., 2007 Wolff and Leander, 2003). When endocannabinoid signaling is systemically blocked, memories that refer to a previously learned answer, which is no longer valid, cannot be erased to accommodate the new ecologically relevant reality (Shiflett et al., 2004). Additionally, endocannabinoid system regulation is also essential for the extinction of aversive memories (Marsicano et al., 2002 Rueda-Orozco et al., 2008). Hence, the crosstalk between GCs, COX2, and endocannabinoids in the hippocampus, in the amygdale (Albrecht, 2007 Quan et al., 1998 Yang et al., 2006) and, perhaps, in the dorsolateral striatum...

Volatility Of Compounds

The partitioning of a volatile compound into phases (air, blood and tissue) influences pharmacological and toxicological effects of the compound and must be considered when developing chromatographic methods. This distribution between phases is expressed by the partition coefficient (K), which may be calculated by dividing the concentration of the analyte in the sample phase by that in the gaseous phase. The lower the partition coefficient, the more readily the compound partitions into the gas phase and the greater is the risk of loss due to evaporation. For example, loss of hexane with a K of 0.14 (air-water system at 40 C) is more likely than loss of ethanol with a K of 1355 (air-water system at 40 C). Hence preventing loss due to evaporation during specimen collection and handling is more critical for samples to be analyzed for hexane than for those containing ethanol. Analytical sensitivity can be increased during extraction and or analysis lowering the K using techniques such as...

Apparatus and method for producing antimicrobial silver solution

Excerpt(s) The present invention relates generally to colloidal silver, and more particularly, but not exclusively, to a device and method for producing a more stable solution of suspended silver, and in greater batch quantities and at higher rates of production per batch than are presently available. It is well known that silver has germicidal properties. In fact, silver was employed as a germicide and antibiotic before modern antibiotics were developed. In previous centuries, users would shave silver particles into their drinking water, or submerge whole silver pieces in the drinking water, for the purpose of ingesting the silver by drinking the water. Of current interest are apparatus and methods for providing a more effective and stable solution of silver. It is desired to provide colloidal silver to be taken orally for medicinal purposes, as well as to be applied topically and otherwise, for the purpose of enhancing the health of the individual.

Laura Carrassa Giovanna Damia Monica Ganzinelli and Massimo Broggini

Following DNA damage, checkpoints pathways are activated in the cells to halt the cell cycle thus ensuring repair or inducing cell death. Chk1 and Chk2 protein kinases play a crucial role in the G2 checkpoint. We previously downregulated by siRNA the expression of Chk1 and or Chk2 in the HCT-116 colon carcinoma cell line and in its subclones with either p53 or p21 inactivated by homologous recombination, finding out that inhibiting Chk1 but not Chk2 caused a greater abrogation of the G2 block and a greater sensitization to different DNA damaging agents in the cell lines with a defective G1 checkpoint than in the parental wild-type cells. These data emphasize the role of Chk1 as a molecular target to inhibit in tumors with a defective G1 checkpoint to increase the selectivity of anticancer treatments. Tetracycline-inducible expressing Chk1 siRNA clones have been obtained transfecting both HCT-116 wild-type and p53 deficient cells with a plasmid inducible expressing Chk1 siRNA, showing...

Design Qualification DQ

For water systems the objective may be to ensure that the system is designed to be able to produce water meeting United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia standards with particular emphasis on ensuring that the design does not encourage microbial proliferation (4, 5). In this case DQ should include evaluating the technology used, examining the proposed specifications for materials, surface finishes, type of valves, monitoring instruments, checking the overall system design, operating temperature and sanitisation methodology. It can be carried out in a number of ways. It often comprises of individual reviews of equipment specifications combined with assembling a team to audit aspects of design within a formal meeting where the designers are present. As with all validation activities it is important that records are kept to prove that the design was subject to qualified review. These records do not have to be lengthy or complex. Often a brief audit report or a...

Effects During Puberty

Bertal maturation in young males 113 and antiandrogens like vinclozolin produce predictable alterations in this process. The ease with which a delay in preputial separation (PPS), a landmark of puberty in the rat, can be measured enables us to use this endpoint to evaluate chemicals for this form of endocrine activity. A pubertal male assay including an assessment of PPS is being considered by the USEPA and others 114 for screening chemicals for endocrine activity, as mandated by 1996 US legislation (the Food Quality Protection Act and Safe Drinking Water Act).

Stressor Controllability

The IS experiments described in this chapter did not manipulate the controllability of the tailshock stressor. Thus, the relevance of many of these experiments to learned helplessness, and the relevance of brain IL-lp, is not clear. We have therefore conducted a number of experiments in which the controllability of the tailshocks has been manipulated. Rats were first either adrenalectomized or received sham surgery, and CORT was replaced in the drinking water as before. They then received either escapable tailshock, yoked inescapable tailshock, restraint in the apparatus, or remained as home cage controls, with parameters typically used in our laboratory (e.g., Grahn & Maier, 1995). Brains were removed 2hr later and assayed for IL-ip protein levels as above. IL-lp protein levels were examined in hypothalamus, hippocampus, nucleus tractus solitarius, posterior cortex, amygdala, cerebellum, frontal cortex, and pituitary. The general pattern of the results for IS was similar to that...

Performance Qualification

The USP test specifications were modified in 1997 in the fifth supplement to the USP 23. Previously, the testing called for a number of separate tests for chemical content. The fifth supplement has eliminated the majority of this testing in favour of conductivity measurements and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) - an indirect measure of organic molecules present in the water, more in line with standard equipment used in industry to monitor the performance of pharmaceutical water systems. The microbiological and endotoxin tests remain unchanged. Table 37 shows the comparison of the testing required for the USP 23, and the fifth supplement.

Other Suggested Mechanisms For

Epidemiological studies indicate that there is an increasing incidence of ALS, which would imply that environmental agents are important. However, ALS triggering by specific toxic agents such as contamination of drinking water and poisoning by heavy metals has never been satisfactorily proven.

P745 Water Photooxidation

1984 Volkov, 1984, 1985, 1986a-c, 1988 Volkov etal., 1986), on a bilayer lipid membrane (Toyoshima et al., 1977), on an electrode (Fong, 1982 Fong et al., 1977 Fruge et al., 1979, Galloway et al., 1978 Miyasaka et al., 1981 Showell and Fong, 1982), in liquid crystals (Aizawa et al., 1979), in lipid gel (Agostiano et al., 1992), in Aerosil (Kachan and Negievich, 1978), or present in nonaqueous solvents containing traces of water (Kutyrin, 1965, 1970 Kutyurin et al., 1968, 1973, 1975) were found to catalyze oxygen evolution during the photooxidation of water. The quantum efficiency in the model oil-water system in terms of oxygen production amounted to 10-20 in the absence of transition metal ions. Oxygen production was measured both polarographically (Boguslavsky et al., 1976a,b, 1977) and by mass spectral analysis (Boguslavsky etal., 1978). Investigations with the Clark oxygen electrode and mass spectrometry conclusively proved the presence of oxygen resulting from the following...

Populations With Potentially High Exposures

The populations living in areas of California and other western states with boron-rich geological deposits have potentially high exposure to boron from drinking water and locally grown foods (Butterwick et al. 1989). Individuals using boron-containing cosmetics or medicines extensively, especially on damaged skin, may be exposed to higher-than-normal levels of boron (Beyer et al. 1983). Infants may be at risk in homes where boric acid containing roach powder on floor parameters is used to control cockroaches.

Virtual Filtering In Silico Prediction of log P and log D

Among the large number of existing lipophilicity parameters 31 , the descriptor frequently estimated by in silico methods is the partition coefficient of a solute between 1-octanol and water, expressed as log Poct 32 . However, lipophilicity determination in different solvent systems, such as alkane water system, proved its utility in (Q)SAR studies and therefore some predictive methods also emerged in this field. Many publically available databases include numerous experimental values collected through the literature the quality of the experimental data represents the cornerstone of most of the models developed to predict lipophilicity. This section presents the different methods employed as virtual filters to predict log P in the 1-octanol water system and in other solvent systems. In Table 5.1, one can find a list of useful softwares which use one of the reviewed methods (Table 5.1).

Heavy Metal Toxicity Lead Poisoning

Through natural occurrence and its industrial use, lead is ubiquitous in the environment. The removal of tetraethyl lead from gasoline has resulted in a decline in blood levels from 13 mg dL in the 1980s to 10 mg dL. The primary sources of environmental exposure to lead are leaded paint and drinking water most of the overt toxicity from lead results from environmental and industrial exposures.

Evaluation of Human Risk of MicrocystinLR and Nodularin

The tumor promoting activity of microcystin-LR may be involved in human liver cancer from polluted drinking water. The incidence of primary liver cancer in Qidong County, Peoples' Republic of China, where people drink pond and ditch water, was about eight times higher than that in populations who drink well water (Yu 1989). It was also reported that the microcystins are not affected by normal chlorination, floc-culation, and filtration procedures used by water treatment facilities (Krishnamurthy et al. 1989). Thus, in Haimen, another high mortality area of primary liver cancer in China, the content of intake microcystins is estimated at 255.6 g day person, and the average content of microcystins was 164.9 93.2 ng L in pond-ditch water and 188.7 20.8 ng L in irrigation water (Yu 1995 Yu et al. 1998). The Guideline for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water 2002) sets the maximum acceptable concentration for microcystin-LR at 1.5 g L,...

Summary And Some Simple Rules

We began Chapter 2 with a simple Fick's law of diffusion model for absorption, with the key components permeability, solubility, and charge state (the pH effect). The BCS scheme is more or less constructed along these lines. Closely related to permeability are partitioning in the well-trodden octanol-water and in the lesser-traveled liposome-water systems. We carefully examined the recent literature, with a focus on describing experimental methods which can yield high-quality results, including fast methods. Sometimes forgotten classic works were also revisited. The it is not just a number'' idea was drilled thoroughly with the tetrad-equilibria speciation diagrams for octanol, liposomes, and solubility. The log-log plots having (0, 1) slopes were evoked in several places, to relate the true pKa to the apparent pKa and learn something about the apparency. Out of these efforts emerged the practical concepts underlying pKoct, pK m, pKgibbs, and p . The study of octanol-water ion pair...

Refine Model Structure

The main reason for the rapid expansion of PBPK modeling over the past 10-15 years has undoubtedly been the contributions of the technology to dose-response assessment and extrapolations in chemical risk assessments. The first application of a PBPK model in a risk assessment was with DCM. A PBPK model for DCM (see Chapter 2) was first developed to explore causality between various measures of tissue dose (referred to as dose metrics) and carcinogenicity (Andersen et al. 1987). The PBPK model contained tissue clearance by oxidation and glutathione (GSH) conjugation in the liver and kidney, accounted for dosing by inhalation or drinking water, and allowed simulation of expected tissue dose metrics in mice and humans. With this PBPK model, it was possible to calculate expected tissue exposures to metabolites from the oxidative and conjugation pathways for different exposure conditions in the liver and lung for mice and humans.

Integrated Pollution Control

The permit granted to the operator by the competent authority will set out a range of conditions that must be met. These normally include limitations on what may be discharged into air and water. These can relate either to integrated parameters such as pH or Biological Oxygen Demand or to specific substances such as copper. Until recently, competent authorities have not set specific limits on individual pharmaceutical active ingredients, but as the IPPC directive has come into full effect in the last few years a number of specific limits have started to appear 29 . With the growing interest and public concern about the presence of pharmaceutical residues in drinking water, the number of specific limits imposed on the release of active ingredients from manufacturing facilities can be expected to rise.

Relevance To Public Health

No adverse neurological effects have been observed in humans or animals following inhalation or dermal exposure. Acute and intermediate oral exposures to boron and boron compounds caused various neurological responses in humans. Degenerative changes in brain neurons which may have been an agonal effect were reported in one infant who consumed 505 mg boron kg as boric acid for 3 days (Wong et al. 1964). At a higher dose (765 mg boron kg), there was extensive vascular congestion, widespread perivascular hemorrhage, and intravascular thrombosis in another infant who ingested infant formula containing boric acid for 5 days (Wong et al. 1964). Biochemical changes have also been found. Cerebral succinate dehydrogenase activity was increased in rats that ingested borate in drinking water for 10-14 weeks, suggesting alteration in electron-transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (Settimi et al. 1982). Increased RNA concentration and increased acid proteinase...

Correlations of log Values with log Poct and Other log P Scales

Although log k or preferably log kw values are good lipophilicity indices per se, very often a direct correlation or even conversion into log Poct values is performed. The mean reason is that one would like to have a comparison with standard experimental lipophilicity values or to calculated log P values, which also refer to the 1-octanol water system.

Effect Of Copper On Tightjunctions Permeability

When ingested with food, copper is complexed with low-molecular-weight ligands such as amino acids and organic acids, which can influence its bioavailability. Moreover, copper can be given as a nutritional supplement, both as a salt or as a complex with organic molecules (51). However, the stability of such complexes should be assessed after gastric transit at low pH and the gradual increase in pH occurring in the small intestine. Ionic copper can also be present in drinking water as a result of contamination from wells or pipes, especially in slightly acidic conditions.

Consequences Of Glucocorticoid Resistance

Mice were sham-operated or adrenalectomized (ADX) and treated with various doses of virus and were sacrificed at varying times after infection (Ruzek, Miller, Pearce, Spencer, & Biron, 1997). Removal of corticosterone resulted in sustained increases in serum levels of IFN-gamma, IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. In addition, removing endogenous corticosterone resulted in an increased susceptibility of infected mice to MCMV-induced disease such that the majority (80 ) of mice died through a TNF-dependent mechanism within 150 hours of infection. Interestingly, the log viral titer in the liver of ADX mice was significantly lower than sham-operated, infected, control mice, indicating that increases in relevant cytokines were mediating stronger antiviral immunity. Cytokine-mediated death was reversed by administering surge levels of corticosterone in the drinking water. These results demonstrate that endogenous glucocorticoids regulate the magnitude of systemic cytokine responses to MCMV...

Chlorinecontaining Compounds

-Dichlorosulfamoylbenzoic acid is a white, crystalline, photosensitive compound with a faint chlorine odor. Halazone is only slightly soluble in water at pH 7 but becomes very soluble in alkaline solutions. The sodium salt of halazone is used to disinfect drinking water.

Reproductive Effects

Animal studies demonstrated that boron can cause injury after intermediate and chronic exposure to the gonads in animals, especially the testes. Impaired spermatogenesis has been reported in rats administered 300 mg boron L as borax (44.7 mg boron kg day) in drinking water for 70 days (Seal and Weeth 1980), but no reproductive effects were evident in rats administered up to 6 mg boron L of borax (0.6 mg boron kg day) in drinking water for 90 days (Dixon et al. 1976). While severe

Lipophilicity and Biological Activity

By 1964, the Hansch group had settled on the octanol water system as the standard for measuring partition coefficients, and had described further examples of parabolic relationships between relative biological activity and lipophilicity. This sometimes involved lipophilicity of the complete molecule, expressed as logP, and sometimes involved variation in lipophilicity at a substituent position, as in the example above. Reasons for the parabolic relationship were put forward. Mathematical modeling, by Penniston and coworkers in 1969 90 of the transport of molecules through a series of membranes, supported the expectation of a parabolic relationship between the probability . of a molecule traversing a given number of lipid barriers in a given time, and its logP value. In 1977, Kubinyi 91 put forward both kinetic and equilibrium models to justify the expectation of bilinear relationships to describe drug transport in terms of logP. Many bilinear equations have now been found....

Biopharmaceutical Facility Characteristics

One of the most obvious characteristics of a facility manufacturing products of biological origin compared to a standard pharmaceutical secondaiy facility is the number of utilities that are required and the flexibility that is built in to allow connection of any process skid to any utility. Usually purified water, WFI, clean steam, compressed air and process gases (e.g. oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide) are provided for process use. In addition, waste systems for contained waste, process waste and solvent waste are usually needed. In order to allow maximum flexibility, these services may be provided in manifold systems or utility panels. These panels (often automated) must be qualified. IQ can consider these in isolation, but during PQ these should be tested as part of the system they serve. The services themselves must be validated sequentially as discussed previously. Typically, the purified water system supplies the clean steam and the WFI generator. It therefore should be...

Antiandrogenic Effects of Phthalate Esters During Development

Recent publications demonstrate that perinatal exposure to a number of phthalate esters alters development of the male reproductive tract in an antian-drogenic manner, causing underdevelopment and agenesis of the epididymis at relative low dosage levels. Arcardi et al. 165 reported that administration of DEHP in the drinking water to the dam during pregnancy and lactation (estimated LOAEL of 3 mg kg day) produced testicular histopathological alterations in male rat offspring. Although DEHP is not an AR antagonist in vitro at concentrations up to 10 imol l, it inhibits fetal Leydig cell testosterone synthesis in vivo when orally administered to the dam at 0.75 g kg day starting at day 14 of pregnancy. As a consequence, fetal testosterone concentrations are reduced in males to female levels from day 17 of gestation to 2 days after birth. This reduction in testosterone levels results in a wide range of malformations of the androgen-dependent tissues in male rats including reduced AGD,...

Colloidal Silver Dictionary

Chlorine A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching. NIH

The Discovery and Development of CPC

In view of the success of the log Poa parameter in drug research, attempts to use CPC for lipophilicity measurements are understandable. Terada and coworkers 14 were the first to determine lipophilicity using the CPC technique in 1987. They used the multichannel cartridge-type CPC (model CPC-LLN, Sanki Engineering, Nagaokakyo, Japan). Perhaps due to the viscous nature of octanol and the high pressure generated in the chromatograph, no direct measurements using octanol water systems were reported. Instead, a mixture of octanol hexane (20 80 ) was used as the mobile phase, and the calculated partition coefficients were correlated with log Poa values from the literature. A log P range of -0.5 to -2 was reported. The following publication in 1988 was from Armstrong and coworkers 15 , in which both octanol hexane (40 60 ) and octanol (100 ) were used as the organic phase by employing a similar apparatus (model CPC-NMF, Sanki Laboratories Inc., Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania, USA). For the...

Toxicity of Rhodium Complexes

There are no data on rhodium involvement in either human or animal biochemical systems. Studies of the 105RhCl3 metabolism in rats administered via the oral, intravenous and intramuscular routes revealed that rhodium was poorly absorbed. Initial rapid elimination occurred in the urine and later via the gastrointestinal tract. Rhodium was mainly accumulated in kidney and liver, but minor fractions were found in many soft tissues. The biological half-life of 105Rh varied between 4.3 and 16.5 days. The few studies on rhodium toxicity indicate that Rh salts are slightly toxic by oral ingestion and are mild skin irritants.108 112 The rhodium trichloride fed to mice at 5ppm in drinking water produced tumors adenocarcinoma and lymphoma-leukemia. Thus, RhCl3 at these dosage levels is slightly carcinogenic. The oral LD50 values for rats are 500-2000mg kg for RhCl3 and Na3 RhCl6 , 5000mg kg for RhI3,

Environmental Oestrogens

This term is used to describe man-made chemicals and phytoestrogens which are present in the environment and have oestrogenic activity in vitro and or in vivo. A large number of compounds within several major groups of chemicals have been identified as being weakly oestrogenic by in vitro screening methods however, very few have been adequately tested in vivo (see Table 2 below). Many of these compounds are widespread and persistent in the environment. They are likely to be present in the food chain, drinking water, plastics, household products, cosmetics, toiletries and food packaging, though which is the most important route of human exposure is unclear. However, exposure to the weak oestrogenic activity of man-made chemicals might not be the real cause for concern. It can be argued that exposure to industrial chemicals or agricultural products with oestrogenic activity is likely to be minimal in comparison to our dietary intake of naturally occurring plant-derived oestrogens, the...

Handbook oof

Global Water Dynamics Shallow and Deep Groundwater Petroleum Hydrology Hydrothermal Fluids, and Landscaping, edited by Emanuel Mazor Drought and Water Crises Science, Technology, and Management Issues, edited by Donald A. Wilhite Soil Sampling, Preparation, and Analysis, Second Edition, Kim H. Tan

Superoxide Dismutase

A few stories about Raj come to mind. He came to Duke directly from Madras, in southern India, to do postdoctoral work with Phil Handler. Hence, we were both working in the Handler lab. At the time, I kept a rubber tube attached to the faucet in the sink for convenience in directing a stream of water into vessels needing rinsing or into my mouth when I was thirsty. During his first day in the lab, Raj saw me about to drink from that tube, and he shouted, Don't drink that, you'll get sick When I asked for an explanation, he informed me that the potable water was at the drinking fountain in the hall. I then explained that there was only one water system in the building and that it was all treated and safe to drink. In a clear tone of disbelief, he said, You mean to tell me that even the water flushed down the toilet is treated water To my affirmative answer, he commented, What a rich country


Although traditional octanol water distribution coefficients are still widely used in quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) and in ADME pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, alternatives have been proposed. To cover the variability in biophysical characteristics of different membrane types, a set of four solvents has been suggested - sometimes called the ''critical quartet'' 49-51 . The 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) water system has been promoted as a good alternative to alkane water due to its far better dissolution properties 50, 51 , but it may be used only rarely due to its carcinogenic properties.

Calculated log P

A number of comprehensive reviews on lipophilicity estimation have been published and are recommended for further reading 53-55 . Due to its key importance, a continued interest is seen in the development of good log P estimation programs 56, 58 . Most log P approaches are limited due to a lack of parameterization of certain fragments, but for the widely used CLOGP program a new version has recently become available which avoids missing fragments 59 . Although most log P programs refer to the octanol water system, there is one exception this is based on Rekker's fragmental constant approach, and a log P calculating for aliphatic hydrocarbon water partitioning has been reported 60 . These values may offer a better predictor for uptake in the brain.


Another pivotal investigation in the United States was the five - month study by the Associated Press organization 11 on drugs contaminating water supplies in the United States. Drug residues were found in the drinking water supplies of 24 major metropolitan areas leading to inevitable questions on what effects a mixture of pharmaceuticals, albeit in minute quantities compared to therapeutic doses, might be having on the health of the human population.

Amino acids

Mouse whole brain concentrations of glutamate are increased, and GABA and glycine are decreased after administration of caffeine at 0.5 mg ml for 1 week followed by 1 mg ml for 2 weeks via drinking water.62 In rats, administration of gradually increasing concentrations of caffeine in drinking water showed increased whole brain concentrations of taurine, histidine, ornithine, and aspartate, unchanged tyrosine concentrations, and decreased GABA and glutamate concentrations.63,64

Diet and Water

Foods high in manganese that provide 1 mg per serving include nuts, seeds, whole grains, pineapple and tea.7 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) levels for manganese in drinking water are set at 0.05 mg l for aesthetics of taste and stain, rather than health concerns.8

Methyl groups

Table 3.1 The change in the partition coefficients (P) of some common compounds when methyl groups are introduced into their structures. The greater the value of P the more lipid soluble the compound. Benzene and toluene values were measured using an n-octanol water system whilst the remaining values were measured using an olive oil water system Table 3.1 The change in the partition coefficients (P) of some common compounds when methyl groups are introduced into their structures. The greater the value of P the more lipid soluble the compound. Benzene and toluene values were measured using an n-octanol water system whilst the remaining values were measured using an olive oil water system

Neurological Effects

In rats, exposure to approximately 20.8 mg boron kg day as borax (based on weight of 0.35 kg and average water consumption of 20.7 mL) in drinking water for up to 14 weeks caused increased cerebral succinate dehydrogenase activity after 10 and 14 weeks of exposure (Settimi et al. 1982). Increased RNA concentration and increased acid proteinase activity in brain occurred after 14 weeks (Settimi et al. 1982).

Other disorders

The manganism that occurs from manganese toxicity produces neurological effects that resemble Parkinson's disease as reviewed earlier. One murine study used a pretreatment with manganese chloride (MnCl2) to attenuate the neuro-toxicity of (MPTP). This neurotoxin induces a Parkinson-like syndrome in humans and primates.76 In mice given drinking water containing 0.5 or 1.0mg ml MnCl2 for 7 days there was a slight prevention the dopamine lowering of MPTP and enhancement of dopa-mine in lesioned corpus striatum, suggesting that pretreatment with manganese can minimize oxidative stress.

Vinyl Chloride VC

VC is an important industrial chemical because of the wide variety of end-use products from VC polymers and its low cost as a feedstock for polymer production (Cowfer and Magistro 1985). It is also produced from biodegradation of TCE by bacteria in the soil. Thus, past spills of TCE may lead to exposures of the public to VC in drinking water or via other environmental contamination. VC is carcinogenic in both humans and experimental animals (US EPA 1986a). At high exposure concentrations in rats, VC causes depletion of hepatic GSH. The current risk assessment for VC carcinogenicity, published by the US EPA (US EPA, 2000a), quantitatively incorporates pharmacokinetic information for VC into the human risk calculations using a PBPK model. The more recent PBPK modeling development for VC has been geared toward providing support for the risk assessment process. Two reactive products of VC metabolism by the P450 pathway, chloroethyl-ene oxide and chloroacetaldehyde, can be metabolized...

Gamete Viability

Although all male vertebrates produce vastly more sperm than eggs, evidence from both fish and mammals suggests that even a small decrease in sperm quality or quantity can decrease the male's fertilising ability. Viability of sperm in fish, as in other vertebrates, is dependent on the correct hormonal and nutritional environment during their development within the testis. This may in turn be affected by the internal hormonal environment during the early life stages in which the testis is differentiated. Endocrine disruption can therefore lead to abnormal development of the sperm and decrease its viability. This may take the form of either abnormal sperm structure or a decrease in its energy supply, both of which can alter its swimming ability and therefore its capacity to reach and fertilise the egg. Computer technology can now make a quantitative assessment of the effects of xenobiotics on sperm quality and predict fertilisation success. 10_12 Recent studies suggest that mercury can...

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic -cells. Supplementation studies in animals indicate that increasing pancreatic zinc levels reduce the severity of chemically induced type 1 diabetes.49 Evidence that higher zinc intakes are protective against type 1 diabetes in humans is very limited. A case-control study in Sweden50 and an ecological study in the UK51 found that higher concentrations of zinc in the drinking water were associated with a significantly lower incidence of type 1 diabetes, but an ecological study in Finland found no such relationship.52 Increased urinary zinc excretion (hyperzincuria) and decreased plasma zinc concentrations have been observed in patients with type 1 diabetes in some53,54 but not all studies.55,56 However, there is no evidence in humans that higher zinc intakes are beneficial in the management of type 1 diabetes. In fact, one study found that supplementation with 50 mg day of...

Reactive Aldehydes

Aldehydes are a class of reactive compounds that make cova-lent adducts to a variety of cellular macromolecules, including DNA. They are ubiquitous pollutants produced by many types of combustion such as smoking, operation of diesel powered engines, and fires used for cooking and heating.23 A number of aldehydes are bifunctional and capable of crosslinking proteins to DNA or to one another.4 Formaldehyde is the most extensively studied member of this class of genotoxins. In addition to being produced by combustion, it is emitted by cleaning agents, home furnishings and construction materials.2,3 High levels of formaldehyde exposure are associated with some industrial processes.3 Formaldehyde is an efficient protein-DNA crosslinker,4 and it is a mutagen in mice, human cells, Drosophila, bacteria and fungi.2 Formaldehyde is a potent clastogen capable of causing a variety of chromosomal rearrangements, and it is carcinogenic to rodents when supplied in drinking water or air.5...


A group of 27 male ACI N rats, six weeks of age, was fed 1.5 1-hydroxyanthra-quinone in the diet for 48 weeks. A second group (14 rats) was also given 16 mg L indo-methacin in the drinking-water for the experimental period. Fifteen control rats were fed basal diet. Rats fed with 1-hydroxyanthraquinone had incidences of 12 27 large intestinal neoplasms (adenomas and adenocarcinomas) and 14 27 forestomach tumours (papillo-mas). In rats fed 1-hydroxyanthraquinone and treated with indomethacin, these incidences were 0 14 and 2 14, respectively. Untreated animals and rats given indomethacin alone had no neoplasms in the large intestine and forestomach (Tanaka et al., 1991).

Bulk Water

The procedure below shall be performed using instrumentation that has been calibrated, has conductivity sensor cell constants that have been accurately determined, and has temperature compensation function that has been disabled. For both online and offline measurements, the suitability of instrumentation for quality control testing is also dependent on the sampling location(s) in the water system. The selected sampling instrument location(s) must reflect the quality of the water used.


Drinking water surveys generally do not report boron concentration. However, concentrations of boron in tap water have been reported in a range of 0.007-0.2 mg L in the United States and England (Choi and Chen 1979 Waggott 1969), and the National Inorganics and Radionuclides Survey completed in 1987 reported relatively widespread occurrence of boron in 989 public water supplies (NIRS 1987). Boron concentrations ranged from less than 0.005 to greater than 2 mg L, with concentrations of up to 0.4 mg L in 90 of systems (NIRS 1987). A survey of 969 public water

Tea Polyphenols

Following the observation of significant in vitro activity, animal efficacy studies in the rat azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon aberrant crypts and N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)induced esophageal carcinogenesis models were tested with these compounds.40-42 The chemopreventive activity of green and black tea compounds was evaluated to reduce the occurrence of premalignant lesions (ACF). In this model, low-dose BTP (360 ppm in drinking water) and high-dose EGCG (1200ppm in drinking water) inhibited the formation of ACF by 26 and 35 , respectively.40 In the rat NMBA esophageal carcinogenesis model, the tea compounds were administered in the drinking water at concentrations of 360 and 1200 ppm for 2 weeks before administration of the carcinogen (subcutaneously, three times weekly for 5 weeks) for 25 weeks.42 At the end of the study (week 25), tumor multiplicity was significantly reduced (p


Lycopene is one of the most abundant carotenoids in human serum. Lycopene has exhibited a wide range of anticancer activities, including antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities, induction of differentiation and gap junctional communication, and inhibition of transformation of mouse mammary organ cultures.49'50 A recent review of animal studies on lycopene has been published.51 Azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats were strongly inhibited by lycopene given in the diet.52 These data were followed up by studies by Kim et al.,53 where lycopene was shown to inhibit dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced cancer in mouse colon. Mouse lung adenomas that were induced by multiple carcinogens were inhibited by lycopene given in the drinking water.5455 Lycopene also inhibited hamster cheek-pouch carcinogenesis when given lycopene by gavage.56

Is And Brain Illp

As already noted, the ICV administration of IL-1 produces behavioral, endocrine, physiological, and neurochemical sequelae that resemble those induced by stressors, as well as the acute phase responses produced by IS described above (DeSimoni, Seroni, DeLuigi, Manfridi, Mantovani, & Ghezzi, 1990 Morimoto, Sakata, Watanabe, & Murakami, 1989). It is therefore of interest to determine whether IS might induce IL-lp in the brain. This issue is complex for a variety of reasons. One is that adrenal corticosteroids (CORT) destabilize IL-lp mRNA (Amano, Lee, & Allison, 1993) and inhibit IL-lp gene transcription (Lee, Tsou., Chan, Thomas, Petrie, Eugui, & Allison, 1988) as well as a number of translational and p os I-translation a 1 processes (Kern, Lamb, Reed,Daniele, & Nowell, 1988) involved in the production of IL-1 p protein (see Watkins, Nguyen, & Maier this volume). Because IS increases adrenal CORT levels, we sought to determine whether IS would increase brain IL-ip protein levels in...


Ethanol exhibits interesting concentration dependent effects on delivery through the skin. In ethanol water systems, delivery of salicylate ions (Kurihara-Bergstrom et al., 1990), estradiol (Megrab et al., 1995a) and zidovudine increased to an ethanol fraction of around 0.63. Increasing the ethanol content beyond this point decreased delivery of these compounds, probably because, at higher ethanol levels, dehydration of the biological membrane reduced permeation across the tissue.


Several arsenic species have been reported, most of them based on LC separation and element-specific detection.26'27 In the context of possible health risk, such analyses have been carried out in several environmental, biological and clinical materials under different conditions of exposure. Since arsenic enters the human body in association with food products and drinking water, speciation in aquatic samples, soils, sediments and different food-related products is mandatory. Analysis of clinical samples (mainly urine, bile and liver) helps to clarify the metabolic pathways of this element. Drinking water Drinking water Methodological approach precision, accuracy, linearity and detection limits evaluated, several samples of drinking water were analyzed Methodological approach baseline separation achieved within

Pet Rodents

Other nematodes of mice for which ivermectin has been reported to be effective include Aspicularis tetraptera (1.0-1.6 mg kg-1 in drinking water for 24 h Hasslinger and Wiethe, 1987), Nematospiroides dubius (300 g kg-1 orally Rajasekariah et al., 1986), Strongyloides ratti (two treatments at 300 g kg-1 Rajasekariah et al, 1986) and Strongyloides stercoralis (single treatment at 100 g kg-1 Grove, 1983). However, attempted treatment of Trichuris muris in mice using repeated doses of ivermectin at 10 mg kg-1 was not effective (Rajasekariah et al., 1986). In rats, ivermectin has been used to treat larvae of Parastrongylus malaysiensis (400 and 800 g kg-1 14 days post-infection), but was ineffective in clearing the adults (Ambu et al, 1992).


Water for injection (WFI) is the most widely used solvent for parenteral preparations. The USP requirements for WFI and purified water have been recently updated to replace the traditional wet and colorimetric analytical methods with the more modern and cost-effective methods of conductivity and total organic carbon. WFI must be prepared and stored in a manner to ensure purity and freedom from pyrogens. The most common means of obtaining WFI is by the distillation of deionized water. This is the only method of preparation permitted by the European Pharmacopoeia (EP). In contrast, the United States and the Japanese Pharmacopeias also permit reverse osmosis to be used. The USP has also recently broadened its definition of source water to include not only the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standards but also comparable regulations of the European Union and Japan.

Chapter Overview

Proof that the Anopheles mosquito is the carrier of the causative protozoa was obtained by Dr. Ronald Ross who was recognized in 1902 by receipt of the Nobel Prize in Medicine. In a scenario somewhat similar to that where definitive proof that yellow fever was transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito was required, Dr. Ross strongly argued that malaria was transmitted by an insect vector and finally demonstrated that the parasite was carried in the stomach and salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito. The latter discovery was important because it helped resolve the dispute whether malaria was spread by the bite of the mosquito or drinking water containing mosquito eggs and larvae.7 The impact of malaria on the human species

Types of Emulsions

Figure 8 A hypothetical pseudoternary phase diagram of an oil surfactant water system with emphasis on microemulsion and emulsion phases. Within the phase diagram, existence fields are shown where conventional micelles, reverse micelles, or water-in-oil (w o) microemulsions and oil-in-water (o w) microemulsions are formed along with the bicontinuous microemulsions. At very high surfactant concentrations two-phase systems are observed. Source From Ref. 130. Figure 8 A hypothetical pseudoternary phase diagram of an oil surfactant water system with emphasis on microemulsion and emulsion phases. Within the phase diagram, existence fields are shown where conventional micelles, reverse micelles, or water-in-oil (w o) microemulsions and oil-in-water (o w) microemulsions are formed along with the bicontinuous microemulsions. At very high surfactant concentrations two-phase systems are observed. Source From Ref. 130.

Data Needs

Bioavailability from Environmental Media. Boron compounds can be absorbed following inhalation of contaminated workplace air, ingestion of contaminated food, or through damaged skin (Draize and Kelley 1959 Wong et al. 1964). The most significant routes of exposure near hazardous waste sites are likely to be through drinking boron-contaminated water and ingestion of locally grown food (Beyer et al. 1983 CLPSD 1989). While exposure can occur by these routes, quantitative data on amounts absorbed or are bioavailable would be useful in clarifying the toxic potential of boron in humans. Exposure Levels in Environmental Media. Data on boron levels in surface water and soil are extensive (Butterwick et al. 1989 Eckel and Langley 1988 EPA 1986b), but additional data on air, food, and drinking water concentrations of boron would be useful in increasing the accuracy of human exposure estimates.

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