Oral absorption and bioavailability are significantly affected by many molecular and physicochemical properties. High MW, high log P, high flexibility and polar surface, and high number of hydrogen donor and acceptors are found to contribute to poor absorption. Poor solubility/dissolution rate and poor stability in the gastric and intestinal fluids are the key physiochemical properties limiting oral absorption. Having a good understanding of these molecular and physicochemical properties and their impact on absorption is essential in identifying the appropriate formulation and drug delivery strategies to enhance oral absorption.

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