Bioinformatical and Bibliographical Approaches

Potential biomarker candidates should be checked continuously using bioinformatical and bibliographical tools to provide biological and clinical context. This step should be performed in parallel to the stratified statistical approaches. Although bioinformatics originated from the field of genomics, it now plays an important role in connecting and integrating biological and clinical data from a variety of sources and platforms [21].

Biomarkers that fit accepted theory are more likely to be accepted readily by the research community and the public [14] [ This is especially important when selecting and transitioning biomarkers from internal and external validation phases into clinical trials. Numerous bioinformatical tools, many of which are open-source, are available to accelerate this evidentiary process. Gene and protein biomarker candidates can be processed first and then grouped through gene ontology using tools such as FatiGO and AmiGO [31,32] [ More sophisticated pathway-oriented programs such as Ingenuity and MetaCore are also potentially useful in assisting the R&D team to zone in on biomarkers belonging to pathways and processes relevant to the clinical endpoints of interest [33,34] .

Another advantage of the bioinformatical approach is the ability to link clinical measurements across platforms and/or identify a unique set of molecular signatures. For example, during external validation on a separate cohort of patients, results might indicate that the biomarkers identified initially as statistically significant were individually unable to strongly predict the clinical endpoint. However, linking expression data across platforms (i.e., genomic and proteomic biomarkers) may help provide a more comprehensive understanding of the biology and establish a stronger correlation between the bio-marker and the clinical presentation of the patient [21].

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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