Introduction

The word biomarker in its medical context is a little over 30 years old, having first been used by Karpetsky, Humphrey, and Levy in the April 1977 edition of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, where they reported that the "serum RNase level ... was not a biomarker either for the presence or extent of the plasma cell tumor." Few new words can have proved so popular—a recent PubMed search lists more than 370,000 publications that use it! Part of this success can no doubt be attributed to the fact that the word gave a long-overdue name to a phenomenon that has been around at least since the seventh century b.c., when Sushustra, the "father of Ayurvedic surgery," recorded that the urine of patients with diabetes attracted ants because of its sweetness. However, although the origins of biomarkers are indeed ancient, it is fair to point out that the pace of progress over the first 2500 years was somewhat less than frenetic.

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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