Many of the nanotechnology-based biomarker detection systems discussed, nanoparticle-based systems in particular, potentiate the use for real-time in vivo analysis and imaging. Although this is very exciting from the standpoint of the various applications that may benefit, the toxicology of these systems must be investigated further. The field of nanotoxicology has recently intensified and raised many more questions than answers provided [99]. Two conclusions that are agreed upon are that the biological interaction with nanomaterials is different from bulk materials and that further research in nanotoxicology must be done. The potential toxicity of nanomaterials represents the largest barrier to in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro cell culture biomarker assays currently being developed.

Qdots have been the most intensely researched system for biomarker detection. However, their cytotoxicity is well known, requiring surface modification that can advantageously and disadvantageously alter imaging properties. Qdots are particularly toxic when ultraviolet light sorces are used [22] . This has led to the investigation of other materials with similar imaging properties and less cytotoxicity, such as nanodiamonds [43]. Regardless, the clearance of the nanoparticles is not clearly understood, and qdots have been seen in the lymph and bone marrow months after their administration [24]. On the other hand, some advances in nanotechnology-based biomarker detection address issues of toxicity that arise from conventional biomarker assay. For example, the nano-PEBBLEs discussed protect cells from cytotoxic fluorophores and therefore extend the range of fluorophores that can be utilized [45].

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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