It is clear that these are just qn.and q22. respectively. Obviously, a biomarker such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT) has information about many diagnoses; therefore, looking at each diagnosis one at a time seems less than optimal, could be grossly misleading, and probably should be avoided when possible. Mathematically, there is no reason to limit the diagnostic categories to two. However, with more than two outcomes, the terms sensitivity and specificity become somewhat meaningless. Perhaps a term such as D-specificity would be appropriate for the generalization, where D is replaced by the particular disease name.

The D- specificity is a measure of how well the biomarkers Y detect the specific signal under the set of decision rules R . This is an important metric for the biomarker developer. However, for biomarker application the bio-marker's utility must be evaluated in light of the prior probabilities of the signals being sent. A common way, preferred by clinicians, to get at this issue is through the positive and negative predictive values, PPV and NPV, respectively [5]. For the normal-abnormal case, the PPV = P[S2ID2]. Bayes' theorem can be applied to get

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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