Subcellular location: Cytosol and blood.
Organ distribution: Widely distributed, but the highest concentration is in the liver, stomach, and brain.
Cofactor: NAD+ (Zn-containing).
Reaction: Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones.
For alcohol oxidation, primary alcohols are preferred over secondary alcohols, most likely because of steric hindrance. In this mechanism of oxidation, a hydride (H~) is transferred to NAD+ to form NADH, and it is pro-R-specific.
Isoforms: High multiplicity. The major classes in humans are ADH1 to ADH5.
ADH is one of the major enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and may have a protective effect against alcoholism.
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