Subcellular location: Cytosol, ER, and mitochondria.
Organ distribution: Widely distributed, including in the liver, kidney, and muscle.
Cofactors: NAD+ and NADP+.
Reactions: Oxidation and reduction of aldehydes (aliphatic and aromatic), which are considered to be potentially toxic; ALDHs can also reduce quinones to hydroquinones.
Isoforms: 17 Genes are known in humans. ALDH1 is located in the cytosol and ALDH2 (oxidizes acetaldehyde) is located in the ER.
ALDH levels are elevated in tumors. ALDH3 is cytosolic tumor-specific and is involved in activation of cyclophosphamide, mitomycins, and anthracyclines to their respective toxic/active metabolites.
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