Physiological Parameters In Various Species

The following section contains tables with physiological parameters (blood flows (see Table 1.1) and volumes of various fluids and organs (see Table 1.2)), which can aid in the interpretation of CL and volume of distribution estimates.

Table 1.1. Blood flows to various organs and tissues for mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human

Blood flows

in mL/min (mL/min/kg

- assumes

listed body weight)

Species

Mouse

Rat

Dog

Monkey

Human

(weight)

(0.02 kg)

(0.25 kg)

(10 kg)

(5 kg)

(70 kg)

Cardiac output

8.0 (400)

74 (296)

1,200

1,086

5,600 (80)

(120)

(217)

Glomerular

0.28 (14)

1.3 (5.2)

61.3

10.4

125 (1.79)

filtration

(6.13)

(2.08)

rate (GFR)

Tissues

Adipose

-

0.4 (1.6)

35 (3.5)

20 (4.0)

260 (3.71)

Bone

-

13.5

-

-

218 (3.12)

(53.9)

Brain

0.46 (23)

1.3 (5.2)

45 (4.5)

72 (14.4)

700 (10.0)

Heart

0.28 (14)

3.9

54 (5.4)

60 (12.0)

240 (3.4)

(15.6)

Kidneys

1.30 (65)

9.2 (37)

216

138 (27.6)

1,240

(21.6)

(17.7)

Liver (total)

1.8 (90)

13.8

309

218 (43.6)

1,450

(55.2)

(30.9)

(20.7)

Hepatic

0.35 (18)

2.0 (8.0)

79 (7.9)

51 (10.2)

300 (4.29)

artery

Portal vein

1.45 (73)

9.8 (39)

230 (23)

167 (33.4)

1,150

(16.4)

Lung

0.070

2.3 (9.3)

106

-

-

(3.5)

(10.6)

Muscle

0.91 (46)

7.5 (30)

250 (25)

90 (18.0)

750 (10.7)

Skin

0.41 (21)

5.8 (23)

100(10)

54 (10.8)

300 (4.3)

Thyroid

-

-

-

-

83.2 (1.19)

Data from Davies and Morris (1993) and Brown et al. (1997)

Data from Davies and Morris (1993) and Brown et al. (1997)

1.5 PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN VARIOUS SPECIES

Table 1.2. Volumes of various body fluids and organs in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human

Species (weight)

Table 1.2. Volumes of various body fluids and organs in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human

Species (weight)

Mouse

Rat

Dog

Monkey

Human

Volume (mL)

(0.02 kg)

(0.25 kg)

(10 kg)

(5 kg)

(70 kg)

Blood

1.7

13.5

900

367

5,200

Plasma

1.0

7.8

515

224

3,000

Total body water

14.5

167

6,036

3,465

42,000

Intracellular fluid

-

92.8

3,276

2,425

23,800

Extracellular fluid

-

74.2

2,760

1,040

18,200

Liver

1.3

19.6

480

135

1,690

Brain

-

1.2

72

-

1,450

Data from Davies and Morris (1993)

Data from Davies and Morris (1993)

References

Brown RP, Delp MD, Lindstedt SL et al (1997) Physiological parameter values for physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. Toxicol Ind Health 13:407-484

Davies B, Morris T (1993) Physiological parameters in laboratory animals and humans. Pharm Res 10:1093-1095

Gilbaldi M, Perrier D (1982) Pharmacokinetics, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York

Rowland M, Tozer TN (2011) Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: concepts and applications. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore

Shargel L, Yu ABC (1999) Applied biopharmaceutics & pharmacokinetics, 4th edn. Appleton & Lange, Stamford

Wagner JG (1993) Pharmacokinetics for the pharmaceutical scientist. Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster

Additional Reading

Wilkinson GR, Shand DG (1975) Commentary: a physiological approach to hepatic drug clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 18:377-390

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