Conventional Analytical Techniques

Conventional procedures designed for analysis of molecular variants are of two types: those that scan DNA sequences for unknown or new variants and those that score DNA sequences for known variants. Both types are consequences of the molecular hybridization rules based on Watson-Crick base pairing and recombinant DNA technology. Certain techniques rely primarily on differential hybridization stringency to achieve genotyping specificity, whereas other techniques incorporate enzyme reactions, such as polymerase extension or ligation, to accommodate different molecular processes that specify the genetic change. This distinction is important because procedures that employ an enzymatic reaction, or an enzymatic reaction combined with hybridization to achieve specificity in geno-typing, are more robust and exhibit better performance than those that rely solely on hybridization.38

Many procedures have been adapted for use with several different platforms, where the term ''platform'' refers to the specific technology employed to read the genotyping results.39 Slab gel electrophoresis was the first platform chosen for

DNA sequence

2005 Microarray-based genome-wide genotyping

Mass ARRAY

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