1. Beginnings 3

Cellular foundations of early pharmacology and genetics 4

Molecular foundations of early pharmacology and genetics 5

Emergence of modern genetics and experimental pharmacogenetics 8

Informational foundations of modern genetics 10

The genomics era 13

The effect of molecular biology on pharmacogenetics 13

2. Defining Pharmacogenetics 18

The genetic profile of human drug response 19

Evidence for individual variation in drug response 24

Evidence that variation in drug response is inherited 25

Interaction with other fields empowers pharmacogenetics 27

Pharmacogenetics is a component of ecogenetics 27

The scope of pharmacogenetics 27

Strategies for gene identification 37

Linking pharmacogenetics to clinical applications 45

Summary 48

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