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Southern blots

1977 Direct (Sanger) sequencing

Northern blots

1980 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)

1982 GenBank established

1985 DNA fingerprinting

Microarray analysis of DNA Rapid sequence database search tool, FASTA

1986 Automation of DNA sequence analysis

1987 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

1988 NCBI established

1989 Dot blot and slot blot analysis with allele-specific probes

DNA sequence variation identified by combining restriction digestion with electrophoresis

Dideoxy chain termination used for DNA sequencing and for scanning and scoring DNA mutations

The RNA version of Southern blots

RFLPs are shown to have diagnostic value

Part of a larger effort to find new ways of acquiring, storing, and analyzing genomic data

Probes designed to hybridize to minisatellites that yield unique RFLPs for individuals have potential for many biomedical and forensic applications

The first application of microarrays to DNA analysis

The method improves the efficiency and sensitivity of amino acid sequence comparisons

Fluorescent detection, capillary electrophoresis, and computer analysis are combined in the first step to automate DNA sequence analysis

PCR permits DNA from any source to be amplified by a process that starts with a chosen DNA segment and proceeds in successive copying cycles, each of which doubles the number of segments in the reaction

Mass and composition analysis of proteins embedded in a solid matrix bombarded with laser light of short duration is achieved

The National Center for

Biotechnology Information (NCBI) was created to house and develop information systems for use in molecular biology

DNA samples placed in circular wells are tested for hybridization with allele-specific probes; dot blots are faster and easier than Southern blotting because restriction digestion and electrophoresis are not required

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