RNA variants

RNA,

Alternative splicing

Protein variants

Phosphorylation Glycosylation Acetylation

Editing Micro Rnas Conformational isomers Other

Modified from Silverman 2004

Figure 6.2 Expanding the central dogma of molecular biology. Advances have necessitated revisions of the original proposal formulated in the 1950s that ''genes beget RNA, which in turn begets protein.'' With permission from The Scientist.

with gene expression systems afforded the synthesis of well-defined recombinant proteins in quantities sufficient for biochemical and pharmacological characterization. Molecular biological approaches in all forms permeated and dominated biological research setting the stage for the convergence of basic research and clinical medicine. These events not only solidified the foundations of epigenetics and provided novel insights into the multiplicity of factors affecting gene expression, but they also redoubled interest in human epigenetics as a bona fide discipline complementary to human genetics.

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