Pharmacogenetic studies are undertaken with the primary goal of detecting hereditary peculiarities in the human drug response and to elucidate these traits in accordance with the basic principles of pharmacology and genetics, but this goal can often be very difficult to attain solely through studies in human subjects. A convincing animal model can provide insights into the potential origin of the human condition and reveal features that are exceptionally difficult or impossible to demonstrate because of ethical or methodological limitations that apply to human studies. The ability to construct knockout and transgenic ''humanized'' experimental models through gene targeting and the capacity to conduct comparative genomic studies across many organisms were monumental advances toward the functional analysis of almost any gene. By exploiting a combination of these techniques and recombinant and congenic strains for analysis of monogenic traits, QTL mapping of gene loci for the analysis of polygenic traits, and simple eukaryotic organisms (yeast, flies, worms, zebra fish) for rapid, accessible ways of genetic screening, model systems provide powerful, wideranging toolsets to discern the molecular basis of hereditary peculiarities in individual responses to therapeutic agents and other exogenous substances in the human environment.
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