Pharmacogenetics has taught us that single gene polymorphisms are excellent prognosticators of unwanted responses to xenobiotics, but as we learn more about these patterns of response, few, if any, phenotypic outcomes appear to be reliably predicted from analyses at a single gene locus. Only when the capacity for genotyping/phenotyping, as well as bioinformatics methods to analyze large data sets, is fully developed, and the rich legacy of pharmacogenetics provides a starting point from which to develop profiles more suitable for medical practice, will the full potential of pharmacogenetics be realized. The participation and cataloging of the effects of variant proteins in pathways and networks that determine individual responsiveness to drugs and other exogenous substances are the next great challenges for pharmacogenetics.

With completion of the human genome initiative and the continuing development of tools to explore the human genome and those of other organisms,

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