The development of pharmacogenetics from 1950 to 2000 is charted in Table 2.1. Xenobiotic targets relevant to pharmacogenetics include drug-metabolizing enzymes, non-drug-metabolizing enzymes, receptors, ion channels, and other proteins, some of whose functions may be unknown or not well defined. Human sensitivities to nutritional and dietary components, occupational pollutants, or industrial chemicals, and to personal life-style habits such as smoking or drinking alcohol, may also be hallmarks of pharmacogenetic phenomena. Historically, the drug-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms are foremost in pharmacogenetics.
Table 2.1 Charting the Growth of Human Enzyme and Receptor Pharmacogenetics
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