References

1. Bouvier, M. (2001) Oligomerization of G-protein-coupled transmitter receptors. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2, 274-286.

2. Milligan, G., Ramsay, D., Pascal, G., Carrillo, J.J. (2003) GPCR dimerisation. Life Sci. 74,181-188.

3. James, J.R., Oliveira, M.I., Carmo, A.M., Iaboni, A., Davis, S.J. (2006) A rigorous experimental framework for detecting protein oligomerization using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. Nat Methods. 3,1001-1006.

4. Bouvier, M., Heveker, N., Jockers, R., Marullo, S., Milligan, G. (2007) BRET analysis of GPCR oligomerization: Newer does not mean better. Nat Methods. 4, 3-4.

5. Cvejic, S., Devi, L.A. (1997) Dimerization of the delta opioid receptor: Implication for a role in receptor internalization. J Biol Chem. 272, 26959-26964.

6. Angers, S., Salahpour, A., Joly, E., Hilairet, S., Chelsky, D., Dennis, M., Bouvier, M. (2000) Detection of P2-adrenergic receptor dimerization in living cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97, 3684 - 3689 .

7. McVey,M.,Ramsay,D.,Kellett,E.,Rees,S.,Wilson,S.,Pope,A.J.,Milligan,G. (2001) Monitoring receptor oligomerization using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. The human delta- opioid receptor displays constitutive oligomerization at the cell surface, which is not regulated by receptor occupancy. J Biol Chem. 276,14092-14099.

8. Stryer, L. (1978) Fluorescence energy transfer as a spectroscopic ruler. Annu Rev Biochem. 47 , 819 - 846 .

9. Mercier, J.F., Salahpour, A., Angers, S., Breit, A., Bouvier, M. (2002) Quantitative assessment of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor homo- and heterodimeriza-tion by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. J Biol Chem. 277,44925-44931.

10. Ellis, J., Pediani, J.D., Canals, M., Milasta, S., Milligan, G. (2006) Orexin-1 receptor-cannabinoid CB1 receptor heterodimerization results in both ligand-dependent and -independent coordinated alterations of receptor localization and function. J Biol Chem. 281, 38812-38824.

11. Fiorentini , C. , Busi , C. , Gorruso, E. , Gotti , C. , Spano, P. , Missale, C. ( 2008 ) Reciprocal regulation of dopamine D1 and D3 receptor function and trafficking by heterodimerization . Mol Pharmacol. 74, 59-69.

12. Kong, M.M., Fan, T., Varghese, G., O'Dowd, B.F., George, S.R. (2006) Agonist-induced cell surface trafficking of an intracellularly sequestered D1 dopamine receptor homo-oligomer. Mol Pharmacol. 70,78-89.

13. Springael, J.Y.,Urizar,E.,Parmentier,M. (2005) Dimerization of chemokine receptors and its functional consequences. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 16,611-623.

14. Kunishima, N., Shimada, Y., Tsuji, Y., Sato, T., Yamamoto, M., Kumasaka, T., Nakanishi, S., Jingami, H., Morikawa, K. (2000) Structural basis of glutamate recognition by a dimeric metabotropic glutamate receptor. Nature. 407, 971-977.

15. Fotiadis, D., Liang, Y.,Filipek, S., Saperstein, D.A., Engel, A., Palczewski, K. (2003) Atomic-force microscopy: Rhodopsin dimers in native disc membranes. Nature.421, 127-128.

16. Heroux, M., Hogue, M., Lemieux, S., Bouvier, M. (2007) Functional calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors are formed by the asymmetric assembly of a cal-citonin receptor-like receptor homo-oligomer and a monomer of receptor activity-modifying protein-1. JBiol Chem. 282, 31610-31620.

17. Scarselli, M., Novi, F., Schallmach, E., Lin, R., Baragli, A., Colzi, A., Griffon, N., Corsini, G.U., Sokoloff, P., Levenson, R., Vogel, Z., Maggio, R. (2001) D2/D3

dopamine receptor heterodimers exhibit unique functional properties. J Biol Chem. 276, 30308-30314.

18. Milligan, G. (2008) A day in the life of a G protein-coupled receptor: The contribution to function of G protein-coupled receptor dimerization. Br J Pharmacol. 153 (Suppl. 1), S216-S229.

19. Gouldson, P.R., Reynolds, C.A. (1997) Simulations on dimeric peptides: Evidence for domain swapping in G-protein-coupled receptors? Biochem Soc Trans. 25, 1066 - 1071 .

20. Hebert,T.E., Moffett, S., Morello, J.P., Loisel,T.P., Bichet, D.G., Barret, C., Bouvier, M. (1996) A peptide derived from a beta2-adrenergic receptor transmembrane domain inhibits both receptor dimerization and activation . J Biol Chem. 271, 16384 - 16392 .

21. Jones, K.A., Borowsky, B., Tamm, J.A., Craig, D.A., Durkin, M.M., Dai, M., Yao, W.J., Johnson, M., Gunwaldsen, C., Huang, L.Y., Tang, C., Shen, Q., Salon, J.A., Morse, K., Laz, T., Smith, K.E., Nagarathnam, D., Noble, S.A., Branchek, T.A., Gerald, C. (1998) GABA(B) receptors function as a heteromeric assembly of the subunits GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2. Nature. 396, 674-679.

22. White, J.H.,Wise,A., Main, M.J., Green,A., Fraser,N.J., Disney, G.H., Barnes,A.A., Emson, P., Foord, S.M., Marshall, F.H. (1998) Heterodimerization is required for the formation of a functional GABA(B) receptor. Nature. 396, 679-682.

23. Romano, C., Miller, J.K., Hyrc, K., Dikranian, S., Mennerick, S., Takeuchi, Y., Goldberg, M.P., O'Malley, K.L. (2001) Covalent and noncovalent interactions mediate metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu5 dimerization. Mol Pharmacol. 59 , 46 - 53 .

24. Zhao, G.Q., Zhang, Y., Hoon, M.A., Chandrashekar, J., Erlenbach, I., Ryba, N.J., Zuker, C.S. (2003) The receptors for mammalian sweet and umami taste. Cell. 115, 255-266.

25. Filizola, M., Weinstein, H. (2005) The study of G-protein coupled receptor oligomerization with computational modeling and bioinformatics. FEBS J. 272, 2926 - 2938 .

26. Guo, W. , Shi , L. , Filizola , M. , Weinstein , H. , Javitch , J.A. ( 2005 ) Crosstalk in G protein-coupled receptors: Changes at the transmembrane homodimer interface determine activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102,17495-17500.

27. Harikumar, K.G., Dong, M., Cheng, Z., Pinon, D.I., Lybrand,T.P., Miller, L.J. (2006) Transmembrane segment peptides can disrupt cholecystokinin receptor oligomer-ization without affecting receptor function. Biochemistry. 45,14706-14716.

28. Harikumar, K.G., Pinon, D.I., Miller, L.J. (2007) Transmembrane segment IV contributes a functionally important interface for oligomerization of the Class II G protein-coupled secretin receptor. J Biol Chem. 282 , 30363 - 30372 .

29. Hernanz-Falcon, P., Rodriguez-Frade, J.M., Serrano, A., Juan, D., del Sol, A., Soriano, S.F., Roncal, F., Gomez, L., Valencia, A., Martinez, A.C., Mellado, M. (2004) Identification of amino acid residues crucial for chemokine receptor dimerization. Nat Immunol. 5, 216-223.

30. Lopez - Gimenez , J.F. , Canals, M. , Pediani , J.D. , Milligan , G. ( 2007 ) The alpha1b -adrenoceptor exists as a higher-order oligomer: Effective oligomerization is required for receptor maturation, surface delivery, and function. Mol Pharmacol. 71 , 1015 - 1029 .

31. Mancia, F., Assur, Z., Herman, A.G., Siegel, R., Hendrickson, W.A. (2008) Ligand sensitivity in dimeric associations of the serotonin 5HT2c receptor. EMBO Rep. 9, 363-369.

32. Herrick-Davis, K., Grinde, E., Harrigan, T.J., Mazurkiewicz, J.E. (2005) Inhibition of serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine2c receptor function through heterodimeriza-tion: Receptor dimers bind two molecules of ligand and one G-protein . J Biol Chem. 280,40144-40151.

33. Meyer, B.H., Segura, J.M., Martinez, K.L., Hovius, R., George, N., Johnsson, K., Vogel, H. (2006) FRET imaging reveals that functional neurokinin-1 receptors are monomeric and reside in membrane microdomains of live cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103, 2138-2143.

34. Whorton, M.R., Bokoch, M.P., Rasmussen, S.G., Huang, B., Zare, R.N., Kobilka,

B., Sunahara, R.K. (2007) A monomeric G protein-coupled receptor isolated in a high-density lipoprotein particle efficiently activates its G protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104,7682-7687.

35. Ayoub, M.A., Couturier, C., Lucas-Meunier, E., Angers, S., Fossier, P., Bouvier, M., Jockers, R. ( 2002 ) Monitoring of ligand - independent dimerization and ligand --nduced conformational changes of melatonin receptors in living cells by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. J Biol Chem. 277, 21522-21528.

36. Cheng, Z.J., Miller, L.J. (2001) Agonist-dependent dissociation of oligomeric complexes of G protein-coupled cholecystokinin receptors demonstrated in living cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. J Biol Chem. 276,48040-48047.

37. Harikumar, K.G., Morfis, M.M., Lisenbee, C.S., Sexton, P.M., Miller, L.J. (2006) Constitutive formation of oligomeric complexes between family B G proteincoupled vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and secretin receptors. Mol Pharmacol.

38. Patel, R.C., Kumar, U., Lamb, D.C., Eid, J.S., Rocheville, M., Grant, M., Rani, A., Hazlett,T., Patel, S.C., Gratton, E., Patel, Y.C. (2002) Ligand binding to somatosta-tin receptors induces receptor-specific oligomer formation in live cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99 , 3294- 3299 .

39. Waldhoer, M., Fong, J., Jones, R.M., Lunzer, M.M., Sharma, S.K., Kostenis, E., Portoghese, P.S., Whistler, J.L. (2005) A heterodimer-selective agonist shows in vivo relevance of G protein-coupled receptor dimers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102 , 9050 - 9055 .

40. Albizu, L., Balestre, M.N., Breton, C., Pin, J.P., Manning, M., Mouillac, B., Barberis,

C.,Durroux,T. (2006) Probing the existence of G protein-coupled receptor dimers by positive and negative ligand-dependent cooperative binding. Mol Pharmacol.

41. Pin, J.P., Kniazeff, J., Liu, J., Binet, V., Goudet, C., Rondard, P., Prezeau, L. (2005) Allosteric functioning of dimeric class C G-protein-coupled receptors. FEBS J. 272 , 2947 - 2955 .

42. Ishihara,T.,Nakamura, S., Kaziro, Y.,Takahashi,T.,Takahashi, K.,Nagata, S. (1991) Molecular cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding the secretin receptor. EMBO J. 10 , 1635 - 1641 .

43. Lin, H.Y., Harris,T.L., Flannery, M.S.,Aruffo,A., Kaji, E.H., Gorn,A., Kolakowski Jr., L.F., Lodish, H.F., Goldring, S.R. (1991) Expression cloning of an adenylate cyclase-coupled calcitonin receptor. Science. 254,1022-1024.

44. McCuaig, K.A., Clarke, J.C., White, J.H. (1994) Molecular cloning of the gene encoding the mouse parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 91, 5051-5055.

45. Dong,M., Zang,M., Pinon,D.I., Li, Z.,Lybrand,T.P., Miller, L.J. (2002) Interaction among four residues distributed through the secretin pharmacophore and a focused region of the secretin receptor amino terminus. Mol Endocrinol. 16, 2490 - 2501 .

46. Lisenbee, C.S., Dong, M., Miller, L.J. (2005) Paired cysteine mutagenesis to establish the pattern of disulfide bonds in the functional intact secretin receptor. J Biol Chem. 280,12330-12338.

47. Grace, C.R., Perrin, M.H., DiGruccio, M.R., Miller, C.L., Rivier, J.E., Vale, W.W., Riek. R. (2004) NMR structure and peptide hormone binding site of the first extracellular domain of a type B1 G protein-coupled receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 101,12836-12841.

48. Harmar, A.J. ( 2001 ) Family - B G - protein - coupled receptors. Genome Biol. 2 , 3013 , 1 - 10 .

49. Donnelly, D. (1997) The arrangement of the transmembrane helices in the secretin receptor family of G - protein - coupled receptors. FEBS Lett. 409 , 431 - 436 .

50. Ding, W.Q., Cheng, Z.J., McElhiney, J., Kuntz, S.M., Miller, L.J. (2002) Silencing of secretin receptor function by dimerization with a misspliced variant secretin receptor in ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 62 , 5223 - 5229 .

51. Harikumar, K.G., Happs, R.M., Miller, L.J. (2008) Dimerization in the absence of higher-order oligomerization of the G protein-coupled secretin receptor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1778 , 2555 - 2563 .

52. Harikumar, K.G. , Morfis, M.M. , Sexton , P.M. , Miller, L.J. ( 2008 ) Pattern of intra -family hetero-oligomerization involving the G protein-coupled secretin receptor. J Mol Neurosci. 36, 279-285.

53. Lisenbee, C.S., Miller, L.J. (2006) Secretin receptor oligomers form intracellularly during maturation through receptor core domains. Biochemistry. 45, 8216-8226.

54. Berthouze, M., Rivail, L., Lucas,A.,Ayoub, M.A., Russo, O., Sicsic, S.,Fischmeister, R., Berque-Bestel, I., Jockers, R., Lezoualc'h, F. (2007) Two transmembrane Cys residues are involved in 5-HT4 receptor dimerization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 356 , 642 - 647 .

55. Seck, T., Baron, R., Horne, W.C. (2003) The alternatively spliced deltae13 transcript of the rabbit calcitonin receptor dimerizes with the C1a isoform and inhibits its surface expression . J Biol Chem. 278, 23085-23093.

56. Ciruela, F., Casado,V., Rodrigues, R.J., Lujan, R., Burgueno, J., Canals, M., Borycz, J., Rebola, N., Goldberg, S.R., Mallol, J., Cortes, A., Canela, E.I., Lopez-Gimenez, J.F., Milligan, G., Lluis, C., Cunha, R.A., Ferre, S., Franco, R. (2006) Presynaptic control of striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission by adenosine A1-A2A receptor heteromers. J Neurosci. 26, 2080-2087.

57. Kamiya, T., Saitoh, O., Yoshioka, K., Nakata, H. (2003) Oligomerization of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors in living cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 306 , 544 - 549 .

58. Suzuki, T., Namba, K., Tsuga, H., Nakata, H. (2006) Regulation of pharmacology by hetero- oligomerization between A1 adenosine receptor and P2Y2 receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 351, 559-565.

59. Yoshioka, K., Saitoh, O., Nakata, H. (2002) Agonist-promoted heteromeric oligomerization between adenosine A(1) and P2Y(1) receptors in living cells. FEBS Lett. 523 , 147 - 151 .

60. Canals, M., Burgueno, J., Marcellino, D., Cabello,N., Canela, E.I., Mallol, J.,Agnati, L., Ferre, S., Bouvier, M., Fuxe, K., Ciruela, F., Lluis, C., Franco, R. (2004) Homodimerization of adenosine A2A receptors: Qualitative and quantitative assessment by fluorescence and bioluminescence energy transfer . J Neurochem. 88 , 726 - 734 .

61. Canals, M., Marcellino, D., Fanelli, F., Ciruela, F., de Benedetti, P., Goldberg, S.R., Neve, K., Fuxe, K., Agnati, L.F., Woods, A.S., Ferre, S., Lluis, C., Bouvier, M., Franco, R. ( 2003 ) Adenosine A2A - dopamine D2 receptor- receptor heteromeriza-tion: Qualitative and quantitative assessment by fluorescence and bioluminescence energy transfer. J Biol Chem. 278, 46741-46749.

62. Ramsay, D., Kellett, E., McVey, M., Rees, S., Milligan, G. (2002) Homo- and hetero-oligomeric interactions between G protein-coupled receptors in living cells monitored by two variants of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET): Hetero-oligomers between receptor subtypes form more efficiently than between less closely related sequences. Biochem J. 365, 429-440.

63. Stanasila, L., Perez, J.B., Vogel, H., Cotecchia, S. (2003) Oligomerization of the alpha 1a- and alpha 1b -adrenergic receptor subtypes. Potential implications in receptor internalization . J Biol Chem. 278,40239-40251.

64. Uberti, M.A., Hall, R.A., Minneman, K.P. (2003) Subtype-specific dimerization of alpha 1-adrenoceptors: Effects on receptor expression and pharmacological properties. Mol Pharmacol. 64,1379-1390.

65. Small, K.M., Schwarb, M.R., Glinka, C.,Theiss, C.T., Brown, K.M., Seman, C.A., Liggett, S.B. (2006) Alpha2A- and alpha2C-adrenergic receptors form homo- and heterodimers: The heterodimeric state impairs agonist-promoted GRK phosphorylation and beta-arrestin recruitment. Biochemistry. 45,4760-4767.

66. Xu, J., He, J., Castleberry, A.M., Balasubramanian, S., Lau, A.G., Hall, R.A. (2003) Heterodimerization of alpha 2A- and beta 1-adrenergic receptors. J Biol Chem. 278 , 10770 - 10777 .

67. Lavoie, C., Mercier, J.F., Salahpour, A., Umapathy, D., Breit, A., Villeneuve, L.R., Zhu, W.Z., Xiao, R.P., Lakatta, E.G., Bouvier, M., Hebert, T.E. (2002) Beta 1/beta 2- adrenergic receptor heterodimerization regulates beta 2- adrenergic receptor internalization and ERK signaling efficacy. J Biol Chem. 277 , 35402 - 35410 .

68. Breit, A., Lagace, M., Bouvier, M. (2004) Hetero-oligomerization between beta2-and beta3-adrenergic receptors generates a beta-adrenergic signaling unit with distinct functional properties. J Biol Chem. 279, 28756-28765.

69. Jordan,B.A.,Trapaidze,N.,Gomes,I.,Nivarthi,R.,Devi,L.A.(2001) Oligomerization of opioid receptors with beta 2- adrenergic receptors: A role in trafficking and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98 , 343 - 348 .

70. Salahpour, A., Angers, S., Mercier, J.F., Lagace, M., Marullo, S., Bouvier, M. (2004) Homodimerization of the beta2-adrenergic receptor as a prerequisite for cell surface targeting. J Biol Chem. 279, 33390-33397.

71. AbdAlla, S., Lother, H., el Massiery, A., Quitterer, U. (2001) Increased AT(1) receptor heterodimers in preeclampsia mediate enhanced angiotensin II responsiveness. Nat Med. 7 , 1003 - 1009 .

72. AbdAlla, S., Lother, H., Quitterer, U. (2000) ATi-receptor heterodimers show enhanced G-protein activation and altered receptor sequestration . Nature. 407, 94-98.

73. AbdAlla, S., Zaki, E., Lother, H., Quitterer, U. (i999) Involvement of the amino terminus of the B(2) receptor in agonist-induced receptor dimerization. J Biol Chem. 274, 26079-26084.

74. Hansen, J.L.,Theilade, J., Haunso, S., Sheikh, S.P. (2004) Oligomerization of wild type and nonfunctional mutant angiotensin II type I receptors inhibits Gaq protein signaling but not ERK activation . J Biol Chem. 279, 24i08-24ii5.

75. Barki - Harrington , L. , Luttrell , L.M. , Rockman , H.A. ( 2003 ) Dual inhibition of beta-adrenergic and angiotensin II receptors by a single antagonist: A functional role for receptor-receptor interaction in vivo. Circulation. i08, i6ii-i6i8.

76. Miura, S., Karnik, S.S., Saku, K. (2005) Constitutively active homo-oligomeric angiotensin II type 2 receptor induces cell signaling independent of receptor conformation and ligand stimulation . J Biol Chem. 280, i8237-i8244.

77. Abadir, P.M., Periasamy, A., Carey, R.M., Siragy, H.M. (2006) Angiotensin II type 2 receptor-bradykinin B2 receptor functional heterodimerization . Hypertension. 48 , 3i6 - 322 .

78. Kang, D.S. , Gustafsson , C. , Morgelin , M. , Leeb - Lundberg, L.M. ( 2005 ) Bi brady-kinin receptor homo-oligomers in receptor cell surface expression and signaling: Effects of receptor fragments. Mol Pharmacol. 67 , 309 - 3i8 .

79. Kearn, C.S., Blake-Palmer, K., Daniel, E., Mackie, K., Glass, M. (2005) Concurrent stimulation of cannabinoid CBi and dopamine D2 receptors enhances het-erodimer formation: A mechanism for receptor cross-talk? Mol Pharmacol. 67, i697 - i704 .

80. Rios, C., Gomes, I., Devi, L.A. (2006) mu opioid and CBi cannabinoid receptor interactions: Reciprocal inhibition of receptor signaling and neuritogenesis. Br J Pharmacol. i48, 387-395.

81. Wager-Miller, J., Westenbroek, R., Mackie, K. (2002) Dimerization of G proteincoupled receptors: CBi cannabinoid receptors as an example. Chem Phys Lipids. i2i , 83 - 89 .

82. Wilson, S., Wilkinson, G., Milligan, G. (2005) The CXCRi and CXCR2 receptors form constitutive homo- and heterodimers selectively and with equal apparent affinities. J Biol Chem. 280, 28663-28674.

83. Parenty, G. , Appelbe, S. , Milligan , G. ( 2008 ) CXCR2 chemokine receptor antagonism enhances DOP opioid receptor function via allosteric regulation of the CXCR2-DOP receptor heterodimer. Biochem J. 4i2, 245-256.

84. El-Asmar, L., Springael, J.Y., Ballet, S., Andrieu, E.U., Vassart, G., Parmentier, M. (2005) Evidence for negative binding cooperativity within CCR5 ~ CCR2b heterodimers. Mol Pharmacol. 67,460-469.

85. Huttenrauch, F., Pollok-Kopp, B., Oppermann, M. (2005) G protein-coupled receptor kinases promote phosphorylation and beta-arrestin-mediated internal-ization of CCR5 homo - and hetero - oligomers. J Biol Chem. 280 , 37503 - 375i5 .

86. Issafras, H., Angers, S., Bulenger, S., Blanpain, C., Parmentier, M., Labbe-Jullie, C., Bouvier, M., Marullo, S. (2002) Constitutive agonist-independent CCR5 oligo-merization and antibody-mediated clustering occurring at physiological levels of receptors. J Biol Chem. 277 , 34666 - 34673 .

87. Suzuki, S., Chuang, L.F., Yau, P., Doi, R.H., Chuang, R.Y. (2002) Interactions of opioid and chemokine receptors: Oligomerization of mu, kappa, and delta with CCR5 on immune cells. Exp Cell Res. 280,192-200.

88. Cheng,Z.J., Harikumar,K.G., Holicky, E.L., Miller, L.J. (2003) Heterodimerization of type A and B cholecystokinin receptors enhance signaling and promote cell growth. J Biol Chem. 278 , 52972 - 52979 .

89. Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, M., Faron-Gorecka,A.,Andrecka, J., Polit,A., Kusmider, M., Wasylewski, Z. (2006) Fluorescence studies reveal heterodimerization of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the plasma membrane. Biochemistry. 45,8751-8759.

90. Fiorentini, C., Gardoni, F., Spano, P., Di Luca, M., Missale C. (2003) Regulation of dopamine D1 receptor trafficking and desensitization by oligomerization with glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. J Biol Chem. 278, 20196-20202.

91. O'Dowd, B.F., Ji, X., Alijaniaram, M., Rajaram, R.D., Kong, M.M., Rashid, A., Nguyen,T., George, S.R. (2005) Dopamine receptor oligomerization visualized in living cells. J Biol Chem. 280, 37225-37235.

92. So, C.H., Varghese, G., Curley, K.J., Kong, M.M., Alijaniaram, M., Ji, X., Nguyen, T., O'Dowd, B.F., George, S.R. (2005) D1 and D2 dopamine receptors form het-erooligomers and cointernalize after selective activation of either receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 68 , 568 - 578 .

93. Armstrong, D., Strange, P.G. (2001) Dopamine D2 receptor dimer formation: Evidence from ligand binding. J Biol Chem. 276, 22621-22629.

94. Rocheville, M., Lange, D.C., Kumar, U., Patel, S.C., Patel, R.C., Patel, Y.C. (2000) Receptors for dopamine and somatostatin: Formation of hetero-oligomers with enhanced functional activity. Science. 288 , 154 - 157 .

95. Karpa, K.D., Lin, R., Kabbani,N., Levenson, R. (2000) The dopamine D3 receptor interacts with itself and the truncated D3 splice variant d3nf: D3-D3nf interaction causes mislocalization of D3 receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 58 , 677 - 683 .

96. Evans, N.J., Walker, J.W. (2008) Endothelin receptor dimers evaluated by FRET, ligand binding, and calcium mobilization. Biophys J. 95 , 483 - 492 .

97. Gregan, B., Jurgensen, J., Papsdorf, G., Furkert, J., Schaefer, M., Beyermann, M., Rosenthal, W., Oksche, A. (2004) Ligand-dependent differences in the internalization of endothelin A and endothelin B receptor heterodimers. J Biol Chem. 279, 27679-27687.

98. Wirz, S.A., Davis, C.N., Lu, X., Zal, T., Bartfai, T. (2005) Homodimerization and internalization of galanin type 1 receptor in living CHO cells. Neuropeptides. 39, 535 - 546 .

99. Bakker, R.A., Dees, G., Carrillo, J.J., Booth, R.G., Lopez-Gimenez, J.F., Milligan, G., Strange, P.G., Leurs, R. (2004) Domain swapping in the human histamine H1 receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 311,131-138.

100. Shenton , F.C. , Hann , V. , Chazot , P.L. ( 2005 ) Evidence for native and cloned H3 histamine receptor higher oligomers. Inflamm Res. 54 (Suppl. 1), S48-S49.

101. van Rijn, R.M., Chazot, P.L., Shenton, F.C., Sansuk, K., Bakker, R.A., Leurs, R. (2006) Oligomerization of recombinant and endogenously expressed human histamine H(4) receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 70, 604-615.

102. Sanchez-Laorden, B.L., Sanchez-Mas, J., Martinez-Alonso, E., Martinez-Menarguez, J.A., Garcia-Borron, J.C., Jimenez-Cervantes, C. (2006) Dimerization of the human melanocortin 1 receptor: Functional consequences and dominantnegative effects. J Invest Dermatol. 126,172-181.

Mandrika, I., Petrovska, R., Wikberg, J. (2005) Melanocortin receptors form constitutive homo- and heterodimers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 326, 349-354. Kopanchuk, S., Veiksina, S., Mutulis, F., Mutule, I., Yahorava, S., Mandrika, I., Petrovska, R., Rinken, A., Wikberg, J.E. (2006) Kinetic evidence for tandemly arranged ligand binding sites in melanocortin 4 receptor complexes . Neurochem Int. 49 , 533 - 542 .

Ayoub, M.A., Levoye, A., Delagrange, P., Jockers, R. (2004) Preferential formation of MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor heterodimers with distinct ligand interaction properties compared with MT2 homodimers. Mol Pharmacol. 66, 312-321. Goin, J.C., Nathanson, N.M. (2006) Quantitative analysis of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor homo- and heterodimerization in live cells: Regulation of receptor down-regulation by heterodimerization. JBiol Chem. 281, 5416-5425. Perron, A., Sharif, N., Sarret, P., Stroh,T., Beaudet, A. (2007) NTS2 modulates the intracellular distribution and trafficking of NTS1 via heterodimerization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 353, 582-590.

White, J.F., Grodnitzky, J., Louis, J.M., Trinh, L.B., Shiloach, J., Gutierrez, J., Northup, J.K., Grisshammer, R. (2007) Dimerization of the class A G proteincoupled neurotensin receptor NTS1 alters G protein interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104,12199-12204.

Dinger, M.C., Bader, J.E., Kobor, A.D., Kretzschmar, A.K., Beck-Sickinger, A.G. (2003) Homodimerization of neuropeptide Y receptors investigated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells. J Biol Chem. 278,10562-10571. Gehlert, D.R., Schober, D.A., Morin, M., Berglund, M.M. (2007) Co-expression of neuropeptide Y Y1 and Y5 receptors results in heterodimerization and altered functional properties. Biochem Pharmacol. 74,1652-1664. Berglund,M.M.,Schober,D.A.,Esterman,M.A.,Gehlert,D.R. (2003) Neuropeptide Y Y4 receptor homodimers dissociate upon agonist stimulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 307,1120-1126.

Angers, S., Bouvier, M. (2000) Reply: Beyond receptor dimerization. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 21 , 326 .

George, S.R., Fan, T., Xie, Z., Tse, R., Tam, V., Varghese, G., O'Dowd, B.F. (2000) Oligomerization of mu- and delta-opioid receptors. Generation of novel functional properties. J Biol Chem. 275, 26128-26135.

Gomes, I., Jordan, B.A., Gupta, A., Trapaidze, N., Nagy, V., Devi, L.A. (2000) Heterodimerization of mu and delta opioid receptors: A role in opiate synergy. J Neurosci. 20, RC110.

Jordan, B.A., Gomes, I., Rios, C., Filipovska, J., Devi, L.A. (2003) Functional interactions between mu opioid and alpha 2A-adrenergic receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 64 , 1317 - 1324 .

Pfeiffer, M., Kirscht, S., Stumm, R.,Koch,T.,Wu, D.,Laugsch, M., Schroder, H., Hollt, V., Schulz, S. (2003) Heterodimerization of substance P and mu-opioid receptors regulates receptor trafficking and resensitization. J Biol Chem. 278,51630-51637. Pfeiffer, M. , Koch , T. , Schroder, H. , Laugsch , M. , Hollt , V. , Schulz , S. ( 2002) Heterodimerization of somatostatin and opioid receptors cross-modulates phos-phorylation, internalization, and desensitization. J Biol Chem. 277,19762-19772.

118. Wang, D., Sun, X., Bohn, L.M., Sadee, W. (2005) Opioid receptor homo- and het-erodimerization in living cells by quantitative bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. Mol Pharmacol. 67, 2173-2184.

119. Jordan, B.A., Devi, L.A. (1999) G-protein-coupled receptor heterodimerization modulates receptor function. Nature. 399 , 697 - 700 .

120. Kota, P., Reeves, P.J., Rajbhandary, U.L., Khorana, H.G. (2006) Opsin is present as dimers in COS1 cells: Identification of amino acids at the dimeric interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103, 3054-3059.

121. Devost, D., Zingg, H.H. (2003) Identification of dimeric and oligomeric complexes of the human oxytocin receptor by co-immunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. J Mol Endocrinol. 31,461-471.

122. Terrillon, S., Durroux,T., Mouillac, B., Breit, A., Ayoub, M.A.,Taulan, M., Jockers, R., Barberis, C., Bouvier, M. (2003) Oxytocin and vasopressin V1a and V2 receptors form constitutive homo - and heterodimers during biosynthesis. Mol Endocrinol. 17 , 677 - 691 .

123. Choi, R.C., Simon, J.,Tsim, K.W., Barnard, E.A. (2008) Constitutive and agonist-induced dimerizations of the P2Y1 receptor: Relationship to internalization and scaffolding. J Biol Chem. 283,11050-11063.

124. Ecke, D., Hanck,T.,Tulapurkar, M.E., Schafer, R., Kassack, M., Stricker, R., Reiser, G. (2008) Hetero-oligomerization of the P2Y11 receptor with the P2Y1 receptor controls the internalization and ligand selectivity of the P2Y11 receptor. Biochem J. 409,107-116.

125. Giguere, V., Gallant, M.A., de Brum-Fernandes, A.J., Parent, J.L. (2004) Role of extracellular cysteine residues in dimerization/oligomerization of the human pros-tacyclin receptor. Eur J Pharmacol. 494,11-22.

126. McGraw, D.W. , Mihlbachler, K.A. , Schwarb, M.R. , Rahman , F.F. , Small , K.M. , Almoosa, K.F., Liggett, S.B. (2006) Airway smooth muscle prostaglandin-EP1 receptors directly modulate beta2-adrenergic receptors within a unique heterodi-meric complex. J Clin Invest. 116,1400-1409.

127. Wilson, S.J., Dowling, J.K., Zhao, L., Carnish, E., Smyth, E.M. (2007) Regulation of thromboxane receptor trafficking through the prostacyclin receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells: Role of receptor heterodimerization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 27 , 290 - 296 .

128. Wilson, S.J., Roche, A.M., Kostetskaia, E., Smyth, E.M. (2004) Dimerization of the human receptors for prostacyclin and thromboxane facilitates thromboxane receptor-mediated cAMP generation. J Biol Chem. 279, 53036-53047.

129. Fotiadis, D., Liang, Y., Filipek, S., Saperstein, D.A., Engel, A., Palczewski, K. (2004) The G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin in the native membrane . FEBS Lett. 564, 281-288.

130. Mansoor, S.E., Palczewski, K., Farrens, D.L. (2006) Rhodopsin self-associates in asolectin liposomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103, 3060-3065.

131. Kobe, F., Renner, U., Woehler, A., Wlodarczyk, J., Papusheva, E., Bao, G., Zeug, A., Richter, D.W., Neher, E., Ponimaskin, E. (2008) Stimulation- and palmi-toylation- dependent changes in oligomeric conformation of serotonin 5- HT1A receptors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1783 , 1503 - 1516 .

132. Xie, Z., Lee, S.P., O'Dowd, B.F., George, S.R. (1999) Serotonin 5-HT1B and 5- HT1D receptors form homodimers when expressed alone and heterodimers when co-expressed. FEBS Lett. 456, 63-67.

133. Berthouze, M.,Ayoub, M., Russo, O., Rivail, L., Sicsic, S., Fischmeister, R., Berque-Bestel, I., Jockers, R., Lezoualc'h, F. (2005) Constitutive dimerization of human serotonin 5-HT4 receptors in living cells. FEBS Lett. 579, 2973-2980.

134. Rocheville, M. , Lange, D.C. , Kumar, U. , Sasi , R. , Patel , R.C. , Patel , Y.C. ( 2000 ) Subtypes of the somatostatin receptor assemble as functional homo- and heterodi-mers. J Biol Chem. 275,7862-7869.

135. Grant, M., Collier, B., Kumar, U. (2004) Agonist-dependent dissociation of human somatostatin receptor 2 dimers: A role in receptor trafficking. J Biol Chem. 279, 36i79 - 36i83 .

136. Pfeiffer, M. , Koch , T. , Schroder, H. , Klutzny, M. , Kirscht , S. , Kreienkamp, H.J., Hollt, V., Schulz, S. (200i) Homo- and heterodimerization of somatostatin receptor subtypes. Inactivation of sst(3) receptor function by heterodimerization with sst(2A). J Biol Chem. 276, i4027-i4036.

137. Laroche, G., Lepine, M.C.,Theriault, C., Giguere, P., Giguere, V., Gallant, M.A., de Brum-Fernandes, A., Parent, J.L. (2005) Oligomerization of the alpha and beta isoforms of the thromboxane A2 receptor: Relevance to receptor signaling and endocytosis. Cell Signal. i7, i373-i383.

138. Sasaki, M., Miyosawa, K., Ohkubo, S., Nakahata, N. (2006) Physiological significance of thromboxane A(2) receptor dimerization. J Pharmacol Sci. i00,263-270.

139. Latif, R., Graves, P., Davies,T.F. (200i) Oligomerization of the human thyrotropin receptor: Fluorescent protein-tagged hTSHR reveals post-translational complexes. J Biol Chem. 276,452i7-45224.

140. Latif, R., Graves, P., Davies,T.F. (2002) Ligand-dependent inhibition of oligomerization at the human thyrotropin receptor. J Biol Chem. 277,45059-45067.

141. Urizar, E., Montanelli, L., Loy,T., Bonomi, M., Swillens, S., Gales, C., Bouvier, M., Smits, G., Vassart, G., Costagliola, S. (2005) Glycoprotein hormone receptors: Link between receptor homodimerization and negative cooperativity. EMBO J. 24 , i954 - i964 .

142. Kroeger, K.M. , Hanyaloglu , A.C. , Seeber, R.M. , Miles, L.E. , Eidne, K.A. ( 200i ) Constitutive and agonist-dependent homo-oligomerization of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. Detection in living cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. J Biol Chem. 276, i2736-i2743.

143. Song, G.J., Hinkle, P.M. (2005) Regulated dimerization of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor affects receptor trafficking but not signaling. Mol Endocrinol. i9, 2859-2870.

144. Song, G.J., Jones, B.W., Hinkle, P.M. (2007) Dimerization of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor potentiates hormone-dependent receptor phosphory-lation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. i04, i8303-i8308.

145. Hanyaloglu, A.C., Seeber, R.M., Kohout,T.A., Lefkowitz, R.J., Eidne, K.A. (2002) Homo - and hetero - oligomerization of thyrotropin - releasing hormone (TRH) receptor subtypes. Differential regulation of ß-arrestins i and 2. JBiol Chem. 277, 50422-50430.

146. Schulz, A., Grosse, R., Schultz, G., Gudermann,T., Schoneberg,T. (2000) Structural implication for receptor oligomerization from functional reconstitution studies of mutant V2 vasopressin receptors. J Biol Chem. 275, 238i-2389.

147. Terrillon, S., Barberis, C., Bouvier, M. (2004) Heterodimerization of Via and V2 vasopressin receptors determines the interaction with ß - arrestin and their trafficking patterns. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. i0i , i548 - i553 .

148. Heroux, M., Breton, B., Hogue, M., Bouvier, M. (2007) Assembly and signaling of CRLR and RAMP1 complexes assessed by BRET. Biochemistry. 46, 7022-7033.

149. Kraetke, O., Wiesner, B., Eichhorst, J., Furkert, J., Bienert, M., Beyermann, M. (2005) Dimerization of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 is not coupled to ligand binding. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 25 , 251 - 276 .

150. Mikhailova, M.V., Mayeux, P.R., Jurkevich, A., Kuenzel, W.J., Madison, F., Periasamy, A., Chen, Y., Cornett, L.E. (2007) Heterooligomerization between vasotocin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors augments CRH-stimulated 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate production. Mol Endocrinol. 21, 2178 - 2188 .

151. Vrecl, M., Drinovec, L., Elling, C., Heding, A. (2006) Opsin oligomerization in a heterologous cell system . J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 26, 505-526.

152. Langer, I., Gaspard, N., Robberecht, P. (2006) Pharmacological properties of Chinese hamster ovary cells coexpressing two vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (hVPAC1 and hVPAC2). Br J Pharmacol. 148,1051-1059.

153. Bai, M., Trivedi, S., Kifor, O., Quinn, S.J., Brown, E.M. (1999) Intermolecular interactions between dimeric calcium-sensing receptor monomers are important for its normal function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 96 , 2834 - 2839 .

154. Gama, L., Wilt, S.G., Breitwieser, G.E. (2001) Heterodimerization of calcium-sensing receptors with metabotropic glutamate receptors in neurons. J Biol Chem. 276 , 39053 - 39059 .

155. Jensen, A.A.,Hansen, J.L., Sheikh, S.P.,Brauner-Osborne,H. (2002) Probing intermolecular protein-protein interactions in the calcium-sensing receptor homodi-mer using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) . Eur J Biochem. 269, 5076-5087.

156. Zhang, Z. , Sun , S. , Quinn , S.J. , Brown , E.M. , Bai , M. ( 2001 ) The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor dimerizes through multiple types of intermolecular interactions. J Biol Chem. 276, 5316-5322.

157. Tabata, T., Araishi, K., Hashimoto, K., Hashimotodani, Y., van der Putten, H., Bettler, B., Kano, M. (2004) Ca2+ activity at GABAb receptors constitutively promotes metabotropic glutamate signaling in the absence of GABA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 101,16952-16957.

158. Ciruela, F., Escriche, M., Burgueno, J., Angulo, E., Casado, V., Soloviev, M.M., Canela, E.I., Mallol, J., Chan, W.Y., Lluis, C., McIlhinney, R.A., Franco, R. (2001) Metabotropic glutamate 1alpha and adenosine A1 receptors assemble into functionally interacting complexes. J Biol Chem. 276,18345-18351.

159. Ferre, S., Karcz-Kubicha, M., Hope, B.T., Popoli, P., Burgueno, J., Gutierrez, M.A., Casado, V. , Fuxe, K. , Goldberg, S.R. , Lluis, C. , Franco, R. , Ciruela , F. ( 2002 ) Synergistic interaction between adenosine A2A and glutamate mGlu5 receptors: Implications for striatal neuronal function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99 , 11940-11945.

160. Romano, C. , Yang, W.L. , O ' Malley, K.L. ( 1996 ) Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 is a disulfide-linked dimer. J Biol Chem. 271, 28612-28616.

161. Nelson , G. , Hoon , M.A. , Chandrashekar, J. , Zhang, Y. , Ryba , N.J. , Zuker, C.S. (2001) Mammalian sweet taste receptors. Cell. 106 , 381 - 390 .

Wake Up Now

Wake Up Now

For Those Who Can’t Wake Up On Time And Fatigue Throughout The Day. Now You Can Wake Up Early And Be Super Energetic Everyday.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment