Foods you can eat when you have Eczema
While no specific TCA containing preparation for topical application is specifically marketed for pain use, a commercially available variant is widely available for use in the treatment of the itch associated with eczema. This contains doxepin 5 in an aqueous base. When being used for pain relief a small amount is applied four times daily over the painful area with an expectation that between 2 and 3 weeks may pass before maximal pain relief is apparent. If over applied, then the side effects apparent with oral TCA use will become evident. Where a treatment plan is being considered for a patient, then this option would be at the simple end of the spectrum of complexities of therapy and would seem, where applicable, to be an easier option for the patient than either an oral TCA or antiepileptic drug.
About 20 of the world population suffers from various allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergies, atopic dermatitis and anaphylaxis. The alarming increase in the prevalence of these diseases over the past decade has led to a clear need for more effective therapeutic strategies.
FceRI is located on the surfaces of basophils and mast cells, which act as effector cells in IgE-mediated immune responses (Kinet, 1990). FceRI is composed of four subunits one p-chain, one a-chain, and two disulfide-linked g-chains. Most of the a-chain extends into the extracellular region, where it binds directly and with high-affinity to the Fc portion of IgE antibodies thus, the a-chain is the most important component of the FceRI molecule (Hakimi et al., 1990). The cross-linking of FceRI with allergen-IgE complexes causes the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins from activated basophils and mast cells, which contributes to the allergic responses in asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and food allergies (Drombrowicz et al., 1993 Gauchat et al, 1993 Metzer, 1991 Yanagihara et al., 1997).
2,4 9-trihydroxydibenzo-1,4-dioxin were assessed by histamine release by human basophilic and rat basophilic leukemia cells and showed increased activities against them (Le et al., 2009). Eisenia arborea, edible brown seaweed, has been used as a folk medicine for allergic disease for centuries by Koreans and Japanese. In a study, several bioactive phlorotannin compounds have been isolated from E. arborea and evaluated for antiallergic activities (Sugiura et al., 2007). Phlorotannin compounds inhibited p-hex-osaminidase released from basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells in their study. Moreover, the compounds showed higher activity (IC50 7.8 p.M) than that of Tranilast (IC50 46.6 mM), a pharmaceutical agent used for the treatment of inflammation disorders including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in Japan and Korea. Results revealed that they are potential agents to prevent the effect through various modes of actions. Further, preliminary investigation with the dried...
In light of the many processes that involve PRD PRM recognition, it was not surprising to find that ablation of these interactions by mutations are correlated with certain diseases. Liddle syndrome, a disease associated with hypertension, is caused by mutations in the PPxY motifs of the cytoplasmic domains of the amiloride epithelial sodium channel (Schild et al. 1996 Kanelis et al. 2001). The proline-rich region of huntingtin is targeted by SH3 (Qin et al. 2004) and WW domains (Holbert et al. 2001) and is likely to play a role in the progression of Huntington's disease pathogenesis. A missense mutation within the WW domain of the poly-glutamine-tract-binding protein PQBP-1 leads to Golabi-Ito-Hall syndrome, a certain type of X-linked mental retardation (Lubs et al. 2006). Mutations within the EVH1 domain of WASP affect the binding to the proline-rich ligand of the WASP-interacting protein (Volkman et al. 2002) (WIP) and are causative for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, an X-linked...
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is prepared from fractionated pooled human sera derived from thousands of donors with various antigenic exposures (see Chapter 52). At the present time it is unclear if IVIG therapy is beneficial for treatment of dermatoses. Reports of successful use of IVIG in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory dermatoses are anecdotal. IVIG has been used to treat toxic epidermal necrolysis, dermatomyositis, chronic recalcitrant urticaria angioedema, atopic dermatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and autoimmune blistering disorders.
The term pruritus is derived from the Latin prurire, which means to itch. Pruritus is a symptom unique to skin that occurs in a multitude of dermatologic disorders, including dry skin or xerosis, atopic eczema, urticaria, and infestations. Itching also may be a sign of internal disorders, including General measures employing copious application of emollients usually are sufficient for xerosis. Inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and lichen simplex chron-icus may respond better to potent topical glucocorticoids and oral doses of sedating antihistamines. Antihistamines are useful in histamine-induced pruritus and in other pruritic disorders in which the sedating effects of these drugs facilitate sleep and reduce scratching at night, when most pruritic disorders are more symptomatic.
Then was developed to exploit this side effect. Topical minoxidil is available as a 2 solution (rogaine) and a 5 solution (rogaine extra strength for men). Minoxidil enhances follicular size, resulting in thicker hair shafts, and stimulates and prolongs the anagen phase of the hair cycle, resulting in longer and increased numbers of hairs. Treatment must be continued, or any drug-induced hair growth will be lost. Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis can occur, and care should be taken in applying the drug because hair growth may emerge in undesirable locations. This is reversible on stopping the drug. Patients should be instructed to wash their hands after applying minoxidil.
Approximately 15 of prescribed drugs are subject to this trait. Mephenytoin is a racemic mixture of R and S enantiomers. In most persons S mephenytoin is eliminated by hydroxylation more efficiently than R mephenytoin. The urinary R S ratio of 4-hydroxy (4-OH) mephenytoin is a determinant of CYP2C19 phenotypes, called EMs and PMs. CYP2C19 PMs may suffer acute side effects and chronic toxicity on usual drug doses. For mephenytoin these include drowsiness (acute) and skin rash, fever, and blood dyscrasias (chronic). Other drugs that are subject to CYP2C19 polymorphism are proguanil (antimalarial), omeprazole and lansoprazole (antacids), and some barbiturates (hypnotics). In persons with gastric ulcers, Helicobactor pylori eradication and response to therapy are reduced in EMs compared to PMs.
It has been reported that the signaling capacity of soluble DPP4 mediates immune function 105,140 . Many clinicians reported the altered level of serum DPP4 enzyme activity in various immune-mediated diseases (Table 1), including bronchail asthma 141 , allogeneic kidney transplantation 20 , atopic dermatitis 142,143 , Graves' disease 144 , IBD 16,145 , MS 146 , psoriasis 143,147 , RA 15,103,148,149 , systemic sclerosis (SSc) 151 , SLE 17,103,150 , ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies)-associated vasculitides 152,153 . Changes in serum DPP enzyme activity is originally attributed to DPP4, while the substrates used to assess enzyme
In contrast to the adjuvant properties described previously botanical polysaccharides have, in some cases, been reported to attenuate immune responses and have been proposed as promising agents for the treatment of IgE-dependent diseases (e.g., atopic dermatitis, asthma, atopic rhinitis, urticaria and food allergies). For example, Danilets and co-workers 297 studied the effects of water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from six different plants on anaphylactic shock and production of IgE and IgG1 by lymphocytes from mice immunised with OVA. They found that treatment with polysaccharides from coltsfoot, sweet flag, clover, Artemisia, marigold and elecampane reduced animal mortality after induction of anaphylactic shock. In addition, injection of these polysaccharides reduced serum concentrations of IgE and IgG1 297 . Likewise, pectins have been reported to exhibit antiallergic activity, resulting in a suppressed allergic asthmatic reaction in animals treated with doses of 5-12 mg kg...
Perhaps the most prominent side effect associated with lamotrigine use is skin rash. There is even an isolated case report of a fatal onset of Stephens Johnson syndrome with lamotrigine use. The risk of skin rash is increased by rapid dose escalation. And so achievement of a potentially
Erupted skin surface will allow increased water loss from the body. Psoriasis is a chronic recurring non-infectious scaling skin condition characterised by erythematous plaques covered with silvery scales. For topical therapy the loss of skin barrier integrity has been shown to be valuable for targeting drugs to the required site of action while minimising side effects (Anigbogu et al., 1996). Lichenoid eruptions are characterised by intensely itchy flat-topped papules while eczema is a further non-infectious eruptive condition, in which blistering occurs. Contact dermatitis can result from a direct irritant action of a substance on the skin (irritant contact dermatitis) or further exposure, following previous sensitisa-tion of the skin, from a contact allergen (allergic contact dermatitis). Irritant dermatitis is the more common of the two manifestations, and can be caused by many chemicals, solvents and detergents sodium lauryl sulphate was used to induce irritant dermatitis before...
In addition, porphyran, a sulphated polysaccharide isolated from red seaweeds, has been recognized to be effective against different allergic responses. According to Ishihara et al. (2005), porphyran of red algae Porphyra tenera and Porphyra yezoensis were capable to inhibit the contact hypersensitivity reaction induced by 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene through decreasing the serum levels of IgE and IFN-g in Balb c mice. Meanwhile, fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida reduced the concentrations of both IL-4 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and inhibited the increase of antigen-specific IgE in OVA-induced mouse airway hypersensitivity (Maruyama et al., 2005). In the recent study, Yanase et al. (2009) have reported that the peritoneal injection of fucoidan inhibited the increase of plasma IgE via suppressing a number of IgE-expressing and IgE-secreting B cells from OVA-sensitized mice (Yanase et al., 2009). On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of fucoidan on IgE production was...
Eczema and psoriasis remedies. In Griffernhagen GB, Hawking LL, eds. Handbook of Non-Prescription Drugs. Washington, DC American Pharmaceutical Association, 1973 161-166. 84. Fisher AA, Pascher F, Kanof NB. Allergic contact dermatitis due to ingredients of vehicles. A vehicle tray for patch testing. Arch Dermatol 1971 104(3) 286-290.
ADVERSE EFFECTS AND PRECAUTIONS Many patients experience annoying and even intolerable adverse effects with these drugs. Sedation and xerostomia are prominent. The latter may be accompanied by dry nasal mucosa, dry eyes, and parotid gland swelling and pain. Postural hypotension and erectile dysfunction are prominent in some patients. Clonidine may produce a lower incidence of dry mouth and sedation when given transdermally, perhaps because high peak concentrations are avoided. Less common CNS side effects include sleep disturbances with vivid dreams or nightmares, restlessness, and depression. Cardiac effects related to the sympatholytic action of these drugs include symptomatic bradycardia and sinus arrest in patients with dysfunction of the sinoatrial node and AV block in patients with AV nodal disease or in patients taking other drugs that depress AV conduction. Some 15-20 of patients who receive transdermal clonidine may develop contact dermatitis.
Mycophenolate mofetil is used increasingly to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in dermatology in doses ranging from 1 to 2 g day orally. Mycophenolate mofetil is particularly useful as a corticosteroid-sparing agent in the treatment of autoimmune blistering disorders, including pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, cicatricial pemphigoid, and pemphigus foliaceus. It also has been used effectively in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and pyoderma gangrenosum. Dapsone is approved for use in dermatitis herpetiformis and leprosy. It is particularly useful in the treatment of linear immunoglobulin A (IgA) dermatosis, bullous systemic lupus erythematosus, erythema elevatum diutinum, and subcorneal pustular dermatosis.
Skin Rash ACE inhibitors occasionally cause a maculopapular rash that may be pruritic. The rash may resolve spontaneously or may respond to a reduced dosage or a brief course of antihista-mines. Although initially attributed to the presence of the sulfhydryl group in captopril, a rash also may occur with other ACE inhibitors, albeit less frequently.
Instead, As2O3 induces leukocytosis in about 50 of patients.11,13,36 The leuko-cytosis can resolve in all cases without chemotherapy.87 The APL patients on As2O3 can also develop retinoic acid syndrome (RAS)-like symptoms such as fever, skin rash and edema, which can be readily relieved by steroid administra-tion.88 Other mild effects were reported in about 40-50 of relapsed patients, including fatigue, fever, edema, nausea, anorexia, diarrhea, emesis, headache, insomnia, cough, dyspnea, dermatitis, tachycardia, pain, hypokalemia, hypo-magnesemia and hyperglycemia. The most common ( 10 ) Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were abdominal pain, epistaxis, dyspnea, hypoxia, bone pain, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, hypokalemia and hyperglycemia.11,36,89 In a clinical trial, prolonged QT intervals (the time intervals for the contraction of the ventricle from the beginning of the Q wave to the end of T wave a prolonged QT interval indicates cardiac toxicity) were observed in all patients during...
Population-based epidemiologic data suggest an annual incidence of HZ between 1.3 and 4.1 per 1000 population 18-20 . Some longitudinal studies suggest an increase in incidence in the last two decades although the reason for this is not clear 5, 20 . The incidence is much higher in the elderly a recent study suggests an incidence rate of 2.1 per 1000 person-years in those under 50 and 10.1 in those over 80, a fivefold difference 20 . Other large studies show a similar trend 1, 19 . These figures are generally accepted to reflect the natural decline in cell-mediated immunity with advancing age. All reported studies rely on the clinical presentation of HZ. Some studies suggest that 10 of the diagnoses of HZ made in primary care are in fact due to zosteriform herpes simplex. Other common misdiagnoses include common dermatologic diseases such as contact dermatitis, erysipelas and insect bites 5, 21 . By contrast, atypical forms of herpes zoster also exist, such as zoster sine herpete, in...
Azathioprine (Imuran) is discussed in detail in Chapters 38 and 52. In dermatologic practice, the drug is used as a steroid-sparing agent for autoimmune and inflammatory dermatoses, including pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, dermatomyositis, atopic dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and Behfet's disease. The usual starting dose is 1-2 mg kg day. Since it often takes 6-8 weeks to achieve therapeutic effect, azathioprine often is started early in the course of disease management. Careful laboratory monitoring is important. Thiopurine S-methyltransferase is critical for the metabolism of azathioprine to nontoxic metabolites. Homozygous deficiency of this enzyme may raise plasma levels of the drug and cause myelosuppression, and some experts advocate measuring this enzyme before initiating azathioprine therapy (see Chapter 38). Mechlorethamine hydrochloride (mustargen) and carmustine (bischloronitrosourea, BCNU, bicnu) are...
The Australian Adverse Drug Reaction Advisory Committee received 11 reports of adverse reactions associated with echinacea use between July 1996 and September 1997. There were three reports of hepatitis, three of asthma, one of rash, myalgia, and nausea, one of utricaria and one of anaphylaxis. There are other published reports of echinacea associated with contact dermatitis and anaphylaxis.78
Unfortunately, despite low systemic concentrations, the risks of side effects are not eliminated by topical NSAIDs.19 The most common side effects are skin reactions such as urticaria, pruritus, irritation, and contact dermatitis. These occur in approximately 2 per cent of
One unusual therapeutic suggestion utilizing manganese as a remedy is for acute atopic dermatitis.57 Historically, balneotherapy or bathing in hot springs was used in the treatment for leprosy and syphilis in Japan. This bathing has been shown to be effective for patients with acute atopic dermatitis, who exhibit exacerbations associated with increased density of Staphylococcus aureus. The bactericidal activity of the water, as determined by growth of bacteria on soybean casein digest agar plates, was due to the presence of manganese and iodide ions at the pH and concentration found in the hot baths.
Selenium is found in many plants and thought to be utilized as a defense mechanism against being eaten by herbivores. Animals that consume some plants growing in locations where selenium soil concentrations exceed 2 ppm can become poisoned over time. Some plants appear to require selenium for growth while others do not. Animal toxicity has been described based on livestock symptoms including blind staggers or alkali disease. Blind staggers, the more serious symptom, occurs within weeks of livestock consuming plants growing in high soil selenium locations. Alkali disease develops over months in animals grazing on plants in high selenium soils that contain levels (5 to 40 ppm) of selenium. Although he did not know of the element, Marco Polo was one of the first to write about selenium toxicity in the thirteenth century. He noticed while in western China that the sloughing off of the hooves of horses was associated with their consumption of certain plants in the regions. Today we know he...
Although presentation of an elderly person with derma-tomal unilateral onset of pain and tingling might lead to the suspicion that the classic skin rash of HZ will follow, it has been shown not to have sufficient specificity to justify initiation of antiviral therapy.44 However, this combination of symptoms, in the absence of an objective diagnosis, should lead to advice from healthcare workers that the patient should look out for a shingles rash over subsequent days and seek medical advice promptly should this occur.
Clinical indications in which decoy ODNs have been studied thus far comprise asthma, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Here, decoy ODNs directed against the transcription factors Stat-1 (asthma, psoriasis) and NF-kB (atopic dermatitis) are in extended Phase IIa trials. While the results of the Phase I trials suggest that topical application of the Stat-1 decoy ODN (inhalation, ointment), as well as that of the NF-kB decoy ODN ointment (see www.anges-mg.com), is safe and well-tolerated, the Phase IIa data for the Stat-1 decoy ODN, though on the basis of a rather limited statistical power, also demonstrate efficacy in both indications (see www.avontec.de). The same was true for topical administration of Avrina's, formerly Corgentech's, NF-kB decoy ODN drug candidate, in a Phase I II trial in patients with atopic dermatitis (see www.anesiva.com). Another decoy ODN developed by the same company and directed against the transcription factor E2F has even completed two large-scale Phase III...
Bacitracin is available in ophthalmic and dermatologic ointments the antibiotic also is available as a powder for the preparation of topical solutions. The ointments are applied directly to the involved surface one or more times daily. A number of topical preparations of bacitracin, to which neomycin or polymyxin or both have been added, are available, and some contain the three antibi-oticsplus hydrocortisone. For open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers, the local application of the antibiotic may be of some help in eradicating sensitive bacteria. Bac-itracin rarely produces hypersensitivity. Suppurative conjunctivitis and infected corneal ulcer respond well to the topical use of bacitracin when caused by susceptible bacteria. Bacitracin has been used with limited success for eradication of nasal carriage of staphylococci. Oral bacitracin has been used with some success for the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by C. difficile. Serious...
Its advantages, apart from its analgesic effectiveness, include the fact that it has no effect on the patients' weight, in contrast to many other anti-epileptics, the lack of sedation associated with use and its safety in pregnancy. Skin rash is the most frequent adverse effect with use and its incidence can be lessened by a slow escalation of lamotrigine dose.
Occasional adverse reactions to PG have been reported. Recently, allergic contact dermatitis was reported from a patient exposed to a propylene glycol containing ultrasonic gel (Horiguchi et al., 2005). Similar findings have been reported from ECG electrodes (Connolly and Buckley, 2004) and also from topical preparations containing propylene glycol such as Efudix cream (Farrar etal., 2003).
This lidocaine-containing patch has a verified effect in certain pain conditions and in particular postherpetic neuralgia. While no trial evidence confirms a pain-relieving effect in tendon-related pain, anecdotal evidence, and indeed logic, suggests that it can have such an effect. Only a small amount of the lidocaine contained within the patch is actually released and therefore its effect is local, not systemic. Consequently side effects are relatively uncommon and innocuous. Skin rash and irritation at the application site are perhaps the most frequent complications of use.
With regard to the toxicity of mercury, 3 major chemical forms of the metal must be distinguished mercury vapor (elemental mercury), salts of mercury, and organic mercurials. Elemental mercury is the most volatile of the metal's inorganic forms. Human exposure to mercury vapor is mainly occupational. Extraction of gold with mercury and then heating the amalgam to drive off the mercury is a technique that still is used today in some developing countries. Chronic exposure to mercury in ambient air after inadvertent mercury spills in poorly ventilated rooms can produce toxic effects. Mercury vapor also can be released from silver-amalgam dental restorations (the main source of mercury exposure to the general population), but the amount of mercury released does not appear to be of significance for human health except for allergic contact eczema seen in a few individuals.
Chamomile contains coumarins and may enhance the effect of prescription anticoagulants. The herb is an antispasmodic and slows the motility of the GI tract. This action might decrease the absorption of drugs. Chamomile preparations may be adulterated with chamomile pollen. This may cause allergy, anaphylaxis, and atopic dermatitis.
Dyclonine hydrochloride (dyclone) has a rapid onset of action and duration of effect comparable to that of procaine. It is absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes. Marketing of dyclonine solutions for clinical use has been discontinued in the U.S. Dyclonine is an active ingredient of OTC medications including sore throat lozenges (sucrets, others), a gel for cold sores (tanac), and a 0.75 solution (skin shield) to protect against contact dermatitis.
Cutaneous clotrimazole occasionally may cause stinging, erythema, edema, vesication, desquamation, pruritus, and urticaria. When it is applied to the vagina, 1.6 of recipients complain of a mild burning sensation, and rarely of lower abdominal cramps, a slight increase in urinary frequency, or skin rash. The sexual partner may experience penile or urethral irritation. By the oral route, clotrimazole can cause GI irritation. In patients using troches, the incidence of this side effect is 5 .
Year of discovery of immunosuppressant activity 1987 (Fujisawa, later Astellas) Year of introduction 1994 Drug category Immunosuppressant Main uses Prevention of organ transplant rejection and treatment of eczema Other brand names FK-506, Fujimycin, Protopic Related drugs Cyclosporin (Neoral), Sirolimus (Rapamune). Tacrolimus (FK506) is an immunosuppressant used for the prevention of graft rejection after transplantation and also for the topical treatment of eczema. The advantage of tacrolimus over steroids in dermatological use is that it does not cause thinning of the skin.1
Therapeutic uses systemic glucocorticoid therapy is used for severe dermatological illnesses. In general, it is best to reserve this method for allergic contact dermatitis to plants (e.g., poison ivy) and for life-threatening vesiculobullous dermatoses such as pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. Chronic administration of oral glucocorticoids is problematic, given the side effects associated with their long-term use (see Chapter 59).
Nausea and vomiting may occur at doses 200 mg day patients receiving 800 mg daily may require parenteral antiemetics. Regardless of dose, side effects in patients receiving 7 days of drug include nausea, headache, skin rash, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea (all at 1-4 ). Reversible alopecia may occur with prolonged therapy at 400 mg daily. Rare deaths due to hepatic failure or Stevens-Johnson syndrome have occurred. Fluconazole is associated with skeletal and cardiac deformities in infants born to women taking high doses during pregnancy and should be avoided during pregnancy (category C).
Common side effects of acupuncture include syncope or near-syncope in approximately 1 percent of patients, bruising around the needle site in less than 1 percent of needle sticks, and persistent soreness from needling that outlasts the treatment by hours to days. Contact dermatitis has been reported and attributed to the nickel content in most stainless steel needles.35 Acupuncture should be avoided during pregnancy or used with caution due to the apparent effect of uterine muscle contraction and cervical dilation that has been produced by stimulating certain points.36'37 Other risks of acupuncture can be divided into organ or tissue damage and infections. The lung is the organ most likely to be injured during acupuncture. Several reports of unilateral and bilateral pneumothorax have emerged.35,38,39,40 Cases of spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries have been associated with acupuncture due to migration of a broken needle fragment or a purposefully retained needle.41,42,43,44...
Curing Eczema Naturally
Do You Suffer From the Itching, Redness and Scaling of Chronic Eczema? If so you are not ALONE! It strikes men and women young and old! It is not just