As mentioned previously, normally animals cannot self-medicate (exceptions are feed additives, insect dusters) and innovative solutions must be devised by the veterinary formulation scientists to assure that their final products can be administered safely, quickly, and easily by the end user. Thus the means of administration must be carefully considered and be part of the product development process (53).

Applicators vary considerably between route of administration and volume/capacity for delivery and are available for intravaginal (Fig. 10), intraluminal (Fig. 11), and for subcutaneous implants (Fig. 12).

Figure 10 Intravaginal applicators available in either a single-handed (upper two applicators) or a double-handed (lower two applicators) design.
Figure 11 Intraruminal balling gun.
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