For intramammary application, the storage container comes with its applicator nozzle attached. The external design and diameter of the nozzle is such that it permits ease of insertion into the teat. Its length can vary depending on where in the teat the preparation is destined to be delivered, but generally nozzle lengths provide access through the teat

Table 3 Medicines Used for Humans Now Being Used to Treat Animal Maladies

Product (drug)

Year (company)

Indication (species)

HyperCard (diltiazem)

2000 (Arnolds)

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (cat)

Vetmedin (pimobendan) Gastrogard (omeprazole) Vasotop (ramipril) Anipryl (selegiline)

EtoGesic (etodolac) Selgian (selegiline) Clomicalm (clomipramine)

2000 (B.I.) 1999 (Merial) 1999 (Intervet) 1998 (Pfizer)

1998 (Fort Dodge) 1997 (Ceva) 1997 (Novaritis)

Congestive heart failure (dog) Gastric ulcers (horse) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (cat) Cognitive dysfunction syndrome and hyperadrenocorticism (dog) Pain and inflammation (dog) Hyperadrenocorticism (dog) Separation anxiety (dog)

canal into the gland itself. The teat opening constrains the maximum external dimensions of the nozzle. This in turn dictates the maximum internal diameter of the nozzle through which the preparation is delivered. In practice, this results in a relatively small internal dimension; thus intramammary products must still be designed carefully to ensure the correct flow characteristics to ensure optimal ease of administration and physical stability.

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