Key Advantages

The formulation of veterinary dosage forms is a challenging process, but it can oftentimes be aided by opportunities. Some of these are discussed below.

The Animal

One of the greatest advantages that a veterinary formulation scientist has compared with his human counterpart is the availability of the target species from day one of the research and development process. Products can, therefore, be tailored directly to the intended species. Appropriately designed animal studies can be used to rapidly develop meaningful in vitro-in vivo relationships, screen lead formulations, and generally provide an insight into the behavior of the dosage form within a biological environment it will ultimately be exposed to during use. The use of animals early in product development phases assures the development of appropriate and meaningful in vitro test procedures.

Manufacturing Process

Because, in general, large numbers of animals (and often large body weight animals) are used in research trials, large-scale manufacturing equipment tends to be used early in the R&D process to manufacture the large amount of product that is required. This offers the advantage that scale-up issues are minimized.

Human Drugs for Animals

Animals are often used to test human drugs during early development. In that respect data are gained without any cost to the eventual animal health drug. Several analogs might be considered for humans and a veterinary use takes the "backup" drug. Or, after a number of years on the market for humans, some drugs end up being used for animal applications.

Metabolism and Distribution

While understanding the ADME characteristics of a drug for humans is very important, it is extremely important for drugs used in food-producing animals. Metabolism and

Table 1 List of Major Review Articles or Other Important Articles on Formulation of Veterinary Drug Delivery Systems

Book/special journal issues title

Book/ Publisher/ journal journal

Editor(s)

Date of publication

Topics covered

Reference

Development and formulation of dosage forms

Book

Controlled release veterinary drug delivery: biological and pharmaceutical considerations

Book

Veterinary drug delivery, part I

Journal

Marcel Dekker, New York

Elsevier Science BV

M. J. Rathbone and R. Gurny

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