Mitoptosis programmed elimination of mitochondria

There is some indications that mitochondria possess a mechanism of self-elimination. This function was ascribed to the so-called permeability transition pore (PTP). The PTP is a rather large nonspecific channel located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The PTP is permeable for compounds of molecular mass < 1.5 kDa. The PTP is usually closed. A current point of view is that PTP opening results from some modification and conformation change of the ATP ADP antiporter. Oxidation of Cys56 in...

Nitric Oxide Its Generation Reactions and Role in Physiology

Bodamyali, C. Stevens and D.R. Blake Department of Medical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7A Y, UK Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, BathBAl 1RL, UK Abstract Nitric oxide is a pivotal reactive nitrogen species that can be generated in a variety of ways. It functions in both physiology and pathology and its reactions regulate its function. Voted as molecule of the year in 1992, the gaseous molecule nitric oxide (NO) has become an area of...

Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress Mediated by Cyclosporine A in Endothelial Cells

Javier Navarro-Antolin and Santiago Lamas Centro de Investigaciones Biol gicas (C.I.B.) and Instituto Reina Sof a de Investigaciones Nefrol gicas (I.R.S.I.N.), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient ficas Abstract Cyclosporine A (CsA) therapy is associated with side effects related to oxidative stress. We characterized the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced in the extracellular and intracellular compartments of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) exposed to CsA. CsA induced a...

Redox Regulated Glutathionylation of Transcription Factors A Regulatory Mode for Gene Expression

Estela Pineda-Molina and Santiago Lamas Departamento de Estructura y Funci n de Prote nas, Centro de Investigaciones Biol gicas, Instituto Reina Sofia de Investigaciones Nefrol gicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient ficas, Vel zquez 144, E-28006 Madrid, Spain Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is a biological mediator involved in the regulation of a wide variety of functions, including gene expression. The interaction of NO with proteins may take place through its binding to heme groups, Fe-S...

Sulphur Containing Amino Acids Glutathione and the Modulation of Inflammation

Pharma R& D, Zambon Group Spa, Via Lillo del Duca, 10, 20091 Bresso - Milano, Italy, E-mail Abstract The diet of industrialised countries is usually rich in amino acids, which are partly used as a source of calories. However, metabolic alterations are observed in diseased patients and a preferential retention of Sulphurated Amino Acids (SAA) occurs during the inflammatory response. It has been demonstrated in an acute sepsis phase model in rats that the metabolism of L-Cysteine (Cys) is...

Analysis of oxidised DNA and excreted repair products

HPLC, high performance (or pressure) liquid chromatography, is particularly suited for small water-soluble molecules and proteins. Most used for analysis of DNA fragments is the reverse phase HPLC. Detection with electrochemical detectors are preferred. There are many different brands of ECD detectors and electrodes cells. In our laboratory we have found that the ESA Coulochem is working excellent for our purposes and provides excellent sensitivity. Similar experience with other detectors can...

Sod

The inactivation of lipid peroxyl radicals by bioantioxidants such as a-tocopherol (aTO) and reduced form ubiquinon Qio(Q) - ubiquinol Qio(QH2) occurs in a non-enzymatic LO *+ a-TOH -> LOOH + a-TO* or L02* + QH2 LOOH + *QH. The bioregeneration of a-tocopherol phenoxyl radical which is formed in this reaction take place with vitamin C (HO-Asc-OH) participation also in a non-enzymatic fashion a-TO* + HO-Asc-OH a-TOH + HO-Asc-O*, a-TO* + HO-Asc-O* -> a-TOH + 0 Asc 0. So far as radicals of...

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The activity of key antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in pancreas cells of animals which are susceptible (rats) or are resistant (guinea pigs) to diabetogenic action of 1 B. Halliwell, Reactive oxygen species in living systems source, biochemistry, and role in human disease, Am.J.Med. 91(3C) (1991)14S-22S. 2 A. Bast, G.R.M.M. Haenen and C.J.A. Doelman, Oxidants and antioxidants State of the art, AmJ.Med. 91(3S)(1991) 2S-13S. 3 A.U. Khan and T....

The Enzymatic Systems in the Regulation of Free Radical Lipid Peroxidation

Cardiology Research Complex, 3-rd Cherepkovskaya 15 A, 121552 Moscow, Russia Abstract Reviewing the data available in the literature and their own findings, the author consider the role of enzymatic mechanisms in the regulation of lipid peroxidation in the living cells. The paper provides a good evidence that phospholipase A2 hydrolysis for reduction of hydroperoxy-derivatives of unsaturated phospholipids by non-selenic glutathione S-transferase is not obligatory moreover glutathione...

Pssg Pso Pssp

The treatment with GSSG produces an inhibition in the DNA binding activity of p50 by S-glutathionylation. A) The DNA binding of p50 was subjected to EMSA experiments in the presence of different GSH GSSG ratios or DTT. B) In the figure represented the amount of protein which is modified to mixed disulfide with glutathione (P-S-S-G), sulfenic acid (P-SOH) or intermolecular disulfide (P-S-S-P). Potential S-glutathionylation of p50 by GSNO was also confirmed 48 . As in the case of c-Jun,...

Flavanols and Procyanidins as Modulators of Oxidation in vitro and in vivo

Keen2 'Physical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, 1113-Buenos Aires, Argentina 2Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA Abstract Numerous epidemiological studies show an inverse association of the consumption of plant phenols with the occurrence of certain chronic diseases, including vascular disease. Reducing excessive oxidative damage is one mechanism for minimizing the cell (tissue)...