The Truth About Fat Burning Foods

Eat The Fat Off

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Alterations in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Chronic psychoemotional stress of social defeats produces development of experimental anxious depression in male mice similar to this disorder in humans. Studies on the determination of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) A activities, 5-HT1A-receptors in different brain areas at different stages of development of experimental model of stress disorder indicate that in the initial stage (3 days of social stress) is accompanied by increase of serotonin level in some brain areas 109 . At the onset of depression (10 days of social stress), a decrease in 5-HIAA levels is observed in the hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens. At the pronounced depression stage (20 days of stress), no differences in serotonin and 5-HIAA levels are seen in various regions of brain except hypothalamus 109 . However, increase number of 5-HT1A-receptors, decrease affinity in amygdale, and decrease in TPH and MAOA activities in...

Plantprovided polyunsaturated fatty acids

Low saturated fatty acid diets are thought to be associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality but the majority of trials in this area have shown there to be no beneficial effects. The critical dietary factor appears to be dietary enrichment with PUFAs, which has been positively linked to a decreased risk of CHD mortality.51 It is clear that there are benefits derived from substituting n-6 PUFAs for saturated fats, which leads to a reduction in cardiovascular deaths, via reduction in cholesterol levels. It is not known whether the benefits associated with consumption of ALA are independent, or are related to its biotransformation to EPA and DHA. One study revealed a significant reduction in non-fatal MIs when adipose tissue contained high levels of ALA and low levels of trans fatty acids. This association was more marked for individuals with a low dietary fish and hence low EPA and DHA consumption.53

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids PUFAs

The critical role of fatty acids in nervous system development has been emphasized in numerous studies (for reviews, see refs. 30-33). Essential fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega-3 (ffl3 or n-3) class, are necessary for development of normal retinal and neuronal membranes (34,35) and subsequent normal behavior and cognition (36-40). PUFAs are particularly important for normal retinal and brain development in preterm infants, leading to the suggestion that infant formulas should be supplemented to achieve PUFA levels comparable to those in human breast milk (41-43). It has even been suggested that the diet of lactating mothers be supplemented with PUFAs (44,45). In the kainic acid (KA) model of epilepsy, intraperitoneal administration of KA results in partial seizures that rapidly generalize into convulsive status epilepticus, later causing the death of hippocampal neurons and spontaneous recurrent seizures, i.e., epilepsy. When the...

An Overview Of Metabolic Syndrome A Precursor Of Diabetes Heart Disease And Stroke

During the last 30 years metabolic syndrome has become increasingly common, and currently affects more than 50 million people in the US. Much of this increase is associated with higher caloric intake (especially of sugar and saturated fats), reduced physical activity and exercise, and an aging population.1

Architecture of the SC Injection Site

Skin is composed of two layers the dermis and an overlying epidermis (Fig. 1). Beneath this structure and superficial to underlying structures of muscle, tendon, or bone is a region termed the SC space, a site used for the injection of therapeutic proteins and peptides. The SC space is typically accessed via a needle that penetrates first the epidermis and then the dermis to reach a layer of loose connective tissue composed of fibroblasts, fat cells, and capillaries its anatomical design allows slippage between the overlying skin and underlying structures. Further, the SC site is considered a potential space as its design to allow this lateral slippage can also accommodate vertical movement. Indeed, the loose nature of this potential space can expand significantly through the introduction of fluids (swelling) that can occur during a local inflammatory response or because of dysfunction of outflowing lymphatic vessels (7,8). If an SC site contains a large amount of fat, the connective...

The effect of wine on the risk of coronary heart disease

The incongruity between established dietary risk factors and death from CHD was highlighted by the reporting of the French paradox that is, why the French have a relatively low incidence of CHD while consuming a diet rich in saturated fat, mainly from butter and cream (Renaud and de Longeril, 1992). Epidemiological data from Denmark advanced this hypothesis by demonstrating a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and stroke in subjects who consumed low or moderate amounts of wine (three glasses per day) (Gronbaek et al., 1995). A possible explanation for this effect is the relatively high consumption of phenolic compounds found in red wine

Antioxidant Vitamins and CoQ10 in Diabetes in Relation to Vascular Disease

Vitamin E (400-800 mg day-1), p-carotene (20-50 mg day-1), vitamin C (500-1000 mg day-1) and CoQ10 (60-300 mg day-1) may be administered to diabetics without any significant side effects. However, long-term follow-up intervention trials are necessary to demonstrate the benefit of antioxidants in the prevention of complications in diabetes and to assess whether the above doses can be safely used. It may be prudent to advise a daily intake of 600 g of fruit, vegetables and legumes (plus vegetable oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids) for primary prevention of diabetes and CVD because these foods are rich sources of antioxidants and phytochemicals (Singh et al., 1995c, d).

Drug Therapy For Hypercholesterolemia And Dyslipidemia

Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-associated conditions, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. These conditions account for most morbidity and mortality among middle-aged and older adults. Dyslipidemias, including hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia) and low levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), are major causes of increased atherogenesis both genetic disorders and lifestyle (sedentary behavior and diets high in calories, saturated fat, and cholesterol) contribute to the dyslipidemias seen in developed countries.

Dietary intervention trials

The Woman's Health Initiative (WHI) is currently evaluating the effectiveness of a dietary modification strategy to reduce the incidence of breast and colorectal cancer and CHD (Eaker and Hahn, 1994). The dietary goals of the WHI are multifactorial and include a reduction of total dietary fat intake to 20 of total energy intake, a reduction of saturated fat intake to 7 of total energy intake, and an increase in the intake of fruit and vegetables (five or more daily servings) and grain products. The effects of fat reduction on disease incidence will be hard to differentiate from the effect of an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption.

Dietary intervention trials and secondary prevention

Clinical trials using dietary intervention with clinical endpoints are, up to the present, from secondary prevention. In a study using an a-linolenic acid-rich diet patients were randomly assigned after first MI to the experimental (n 302) or control group (n 303) (de Lorgeril et al., 1994 Renaud et al., 1995). Subjects in the experimental group were advised to eat more bread, more vegetables and legumes, more fish, less meat (beef, lamb and pork), it being replaced by poultry, to have no day without fruit, and to replace butter and cream with a margarine comparable with olive oil. The experimental group consumed considerably less lipids, saturated fat, cholesterol and linoleic acid, but more oleic acid and a-linolenic acid and had increased plasma concentrations of these nutrients and also of vitamins C and E. The diet was also rich in folic acid. After follow-up of 27 months those in the experimental group had a relative risk of 0.27 (95 CI 0.12-0.59, P 0.001) of MI or cardiac death...

Effects of Fruit and Vegetables Biochemical Observations

Servings per day (Zino et al., 1997). Plasma concentrations of vitamin C, retinol, a-tocopherol, a- and p-carotene, lipids and lipoproteins were assessed before and after an 8-week intervention period. The plasma vitamin C, a-carotene, and p-carotene concentrations increased, while concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol, lipids and lipoproteins remained unchanged despite some increase in dietary vitamin E and a small reduction in saturated fat intake. An interesting addition to the results would have been the inclusion of data on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. The authors concluded that more specific dietary advice to modify fat intake may be necessary to reduce the risk of CVD.

Hypertension and heart failure

Changes to reduce blood pressure or cardiovascular risk these include smoking cessation, weight reduction, reduction of excessive intake of alcohol, reduction of dietary salt, reduction of total and saturated fat, increasing exercise, and increasing fruit and vegetable intake.

Effects of soy products on blood pressure

A recent review of 22 randomised trials of soy protein and isoflavones concluded that soy products should be beneficial to cardiovascular health because of their high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fibre, vitamins and minerals and low content of saturated fat, because studies on the effects of the isoflavones alone were found to have negligible effects.44

Comparison of flaxseed and fish oils

In a controlled, randomised, double-blind, crossover study68 the effect of low-dose flaxseed or fish oils on subjects consuming diets with a high or low polyunsaturated saturated fatty acid diet was investigated. All subjects took olive oil capsules (consisting mostly of oleic acid, 18 1n-9) for three months as a placebo. They were then randomly assigned to take flaxseed oil (35 mg of ALA daily) or fish oil (35 mg of EPA) in capsules for three months, before crossing over to the other supplement. Blood samples and diet records were taken every three months. Neither flaxseed oil nor fish oil capsules significantly altered plasma total, LDL-C or HDL-C. However, it was found that fish oil reduced plasma triacylglycerides in the low polyunsaturated saturated group. This was not seen in the flaxseed oil subjects but this may have been due to the small dose used. In a number of studies into the effects of dietary fattys acids on cardiac indicators, fatty acid intake is carefully controlled....

Data Suggesting Benefit of Vitamin E Supplementation

Absolute rates of CHD vary among countries with similar mean serum cholesterol and may relate to factors such as consumption of saturated fat and antioxidants, and nondietary factors such as cigarette smoking. Many investigators have found that populations with low rates of CHD consume diets rich in antioxidants such as vitamin E (7), and this agrees with studies measuring plasma levels of some antioxidants (8). Gey and co-workers (7) found that the apparent clinical benefit was great despite only small difference, in apparent plasma concentrations of a-tocopherol (biologically the most active form of vitamin E) in high- and low-intake populations. Although different dietary antioxidants, including flavonoids (9), have been reported to confer protection against vascular disease, overall, vitamin E has received the most attention.

Importance of Membrane EFA in Schizophrenia

EFA are attached to cell membrane lipids, primarily phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol that make up 80 of total phospholipids. The two types of EFA, defined on the basis of the first double-bond position, are the omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) series. Neuronal membrane phospholipids contain high proportions of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), primarily AA (n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA n-3). In addition to helping to maintain normal membrane structure and function, EFA also are critical in all aspects of normal brain development (Tacconi et al., 1997).

Alterations in Phospholipids and PUFA in Schizophrenia

EFA concentrations have been investigated only recently. Significant reductions in RBC AA concentration have been reported in hospitalized neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients (Peet et al., 1994). Similarly, significant decreases of both plasma AA and linoleic acid (18 2, n-6), a precursor of AA, but an increase in total omega-3 fatty acids, was reported in three schizophrenic patient groups from England, Scotland and Ireland (Horrobin et al., 1989). A decrease in plasma linoleic acid, but not in AA, was reported in Japanese schizophrenic patients (Kaiya et al., 1991). Decreases in PUFA were also demonstrated in RBC membranes of schizophrenic patients (Vaddadi et al., 1989 Glen et al., 1994 Laugharne et al., 1996 Peet et al., 1996). More recently, Yao et al. (1994b) reported a significant decrease of PUFA, particularly linoleic acid and AA, in the RBC ghost membranes of schizophrenic patients on and off treatment with the antipsychotic haloperidol. Thus, reductions in blood...

O Commercially Available Essential Fatty Acid Supplements

Lovaza (omega-3-acid ethyl esters) is available from Reliant Pharmaceuticals by prescription only. Formerly known as Omacar, this mixture of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters is recommended to reduce very high (500 mg dL or above) triglyceride blood levels in adults. This product is administered orally and has similar precautions to usage as the available over-the-counter (OTC) products discussed below. widely available as mixtures of omega-3 PUFA containing predominantly DHA and EPA. The primary therapeutic claim for these products is improved cardiovascular health, however, other health claims for these products are broad and may be unsubstantiated. A comprehensive listing of claims and references to supportive evidence has been published.26 The recommended minimum oral daily dose for these products is 500 mg of combined DHA and EPA. Suggested dosages for specific indications may be 2 to 3 times this level. The natural antioxidant vitamin E may be included in these

Molecular Basis of Insulin Action and Insulin Resistance in Peripheral Tissues

To understand the molecular basis of insulin resistance (whether primary or secondary) in muscle and fat cells, it is imperative to gain knowledge of the normal mechanisms of insulin action. In these tissues, insulin stimulates glucose uptake by rapidly mobilizing preexisting glucose transporters (primarily the GLUT4 isoform) from an intracellular storage organelle (or vesicle) to the plasma membrane (5,6). This is achieved by a series of signals elicited from the receptor, which are detected in an unknown fashion by the intracellular organelle. The latter is then free to find and interact with docking sites on the plasma membrane (7) that will ultimately enable fusion of the two membranes to provide functional glucose transporters. Detailed knowledge has emerged on the signals emanating from the receptor that are essential for GLUT4 translocation and the nature of the proteins engaged in vesicle docking and fusion with the plasma membrane.

Pharmacological Effects

Ephedrine's actions occur through mixed stimulation of the a- and j-adrenergic receptors. The drug is a CNS stimulant that increases the strength and rate of cardiac contraction. Additionally, ephedrine decreases gastric motility, causes bronchodilation, and stimulates peripheral vasoconstriction with the predicted increase in blood pressure. The threo isomer (+)-pseudoephedrine causes similar effects but is much less potent than (-)-ephedrine. The claims that ephedra causes increased metabolism and fat burning are certainly false, and ephedra lacks anorectic effects. Any reports of successful use of ephedra preparations in weight loss probably reflect the stimulant or energizing effect and increased physical activity. In the United States, ephedra has been used as a recreational CNS stimulant (natural ecstasy).

Omega3 fatty acid compounds

The omega-3 fatty acid compounds comprise omega-3-acid ethyl esters (Omacor ) and omega-3-marine triglycerides (Maxepa ). Omega-3 fatty acid compounds may be used to reduce triglycerides, as an alternative to a fibrate and in addition to a statin, in patients with combined (mixed) hyperlipidaemia not adequately controlled with a statin alone. A triglyceride concentration exceeding 10 mmol litre is associated with acute pancreatitis and lowering the concentration reduces this risk. The fat content of omega-3 fatty acid compounds (including excipients in the preparations) should be taken into consideration when treating hypertriglyceridaemia. There is little clinical trial evidence that the triglyceride lowering effect decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The Scottish Medicines Consortium (p. 4) has advised (November 2002) that omega-3-acid ethyl esters (Omacor ) is not recommended for use within NHS Scotland for the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia.

Freeman Ketogenic Diet

Fraser DD, Whiting S, Andrew RD, Macdonald EA, Musa-Veloso K, Cunnane SC. Elevated polyun-saturated fatty acids in blood serum obtained from children on the ketogenic diet. Neurology 2003 60 1026-1029. 29. Schlanger S, Shinitzky M, Yam D. Diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids alleviates convulsion symptoms in epilepsy patients. Epilepsia 2002 43 103-104.

Endogenous Glucoregulatory Peptide Hormones and Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV DPP4 Inhibitors

Glycaemic control is crucial in the therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physiologically, insulin, produced by the p-islet cells in the pancreas in response to an increase in blood glucose concentrations, facilitates the clearance of blood glucose, acting on specific insulin receptors to increase glucose uptake into the liver, muscle and fat cells and stimulating lipid metabolism. An important stimulus to this insulin production is provided by gastrointestinal hormones, such as gastrin, secretin and incretins. The incretins, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), produced by the intestinal mucosa, stimulate insulin production by pancreatic p-cells after eating, even before blood glucose begins to rise 3 . GLP-1, as the active GLP-1 (7-36) amide, activates specific G-protein-coupled receptors. However, like GIP, GLP-1 is rapidly degraded in vivo to an inactive metabolite by a serine protease, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), also known as adenosine...

Binifibrate Clofibric

Of atherosclerotic diseases, particularly CHD. Of course, there are other risk factors as well (e.g., hypertension and smoking). The medical consensus is now focused on the necessity for reductions in total fat, saturated fats, and cholesterol in the blood. There are still some disagreements as to the numeric goals. Cholesterol levels as high as 240 mg dL, considered the upper normal only several years ago, are now viewed as too high. Values of 200 mg or less are now believed more desirable.

Control Of Npy And Galanin Expression By Nutritional Status

The circulating hormones leptin and insulin have inhibitory effects on the expression of orexigenic neuropeptides. Leptin is a satiety hormone that is secreted by fat cells and serves as a signal of energy stores. When energy stores are abundant, leptin levels are high. Leptin decreases food intake via two mechanisms. Leptin activates preprome-lanocortin (POMC) neurons in the ARC, which release a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (a-MSH). a-MSH stimulates cells expressing melanocortin-4 receptors, leading to a decrease in food intake. Conversely, leptin inhibits NPY-containing neurons and decreases the hypothalamic expression of NPY and galanin. Furthermore, NPY expression is induced when leptin levels are low, e.g., during food deprivation and in leptin-deficient rodents, leading to an increase in food intake (4,11,16,17).

Profiles And Bioavailability Of Fucoxanthin

No adverse side effects of fucoxanthin were reported in the mice study. Notably, in animal studies, fucoxanthin also appeared to stimulate liver to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a type of omega-3 fatty acid, at levels comparable to fish oil supplementation. The animal experiments with fucoxanthin stimulated researchers to recommend human clinical trials. In placebo-controlled trials, a supplement containing a 5 fucoxanthin (daily dosage 10 mg) did not reveal any harmful effects (Holt, 2008). Therefore, fucoxanthin may be considered as nontoxic, nonaller-genic, biocompatible, bioactive materials.

The Macrophage Theory Of Depression

Clinical and epidemiological observations and also provides direct predictions that may be tested experimentally and or clinically. For example, Maes, Smith, Christophe, Cosyns, Desnyder, and Meltzer (1996) have shown that the concentration of omega 3 fatty acids in the erythrocyte membranes of depressed patients is significantly decreased. This could suggest an inbalance between the omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acid pathway and reflects an increased synthesis of prostaglandins due to the relatively high intake of vegetable oil (a source of omega 6 fatty acids). Thus an increase in omega 6 and or a decrease in omega 3, fatty acids could contribute to the changes that cause depression. A diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) might therefore have some immunoprotective function (Smith, 1991 Maes and Smith, 1998).

O Eicosanoid Biosynthesis

Eicosanoid Inhibition

Array of oxygenated eicosanoids with diverse biologic activities (see Table 26.2). The first enzyme in this pathway, PGH-synthase, is a hemoprotein that catalyzes both the addition of oxygen (to form PGG2) and the subsequent reduction (peroxidase activity) of the 15-position hydroperoxide to the 15-(S)-configuration alcohol (PGH2).7 PGH-synthase (also called cyclooxygenase-1 COX-1 or -2 COX-2 , and formerly PG-synthetase) has been the focus of intense investigation because of its key role as the first enzyme in the arachidonic acid cascade.8 It is this enzyme in constitutive (COX-1) or inducible form (COX-2) that is susceptible to inhibition by NSAIDs, leading to relief of pain, fever, and inflammation.6,9 This enzyme is also inhibited by the m-3 (omega-3) fatty acids (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA ) found in certain cold-water fish, which are provided commercially as nutritional supplements, leading to beneficial cardiovascular effects.10 Cyclooxygenase will

N3 and n6 Essential fatty acids

A high dietary intake of saturated fat is thought to increase cholesterol levels and increase the risk of atherosclerosis. n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are believed to be beneficial in preventing or reversing high cholesterol levels.45 Modern health advice is to reduce cholesterol, saturated fat and trans fatty acid intake for reduction of serum cholesterol levels.46

Colloidal Silver Dictionary

Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. NIH

HSPs and Autoimmunity in Atherogenesis

We have recently reported a significant relationship between HSP-60, -65 and -70 antibody titers with specific dietary constituent 105, 204 in subjects with dyslipidemia, plasma antibody titers to HSP60, -65, -70 were associated with dietary antioxidant vitamins and saturated fat 204 . We and others have also found a significant relationship between antibody titers to HSP60 versus HSP65, HSP60 versus HSP70, and HSP65 versus HSP70 206,207 , although these findings do not accord with those of Kocsis et al. 208 .

Isoprostanes as Oxidative Markers in Degenerative Diseases

A study was conducted to examine the relationship between pathological severity and lipid peroxidation, using intragastric fed rats as a model for alcoholic liver disease (Nanji et al., 1994b). Oxidative stress was assessed by measurement of 8-iso-PGF2a and microsome-conjugated dienes, as well as histological liver examination. It was found that animals fed a diet supplemented with ethanol and polyunsaturated fish oil had the highest amount of isoprostanes, and the most pathological damage, compared with a saturated fat and ethanol diet.

Vascular system and atherosclerosis

There is a distinctive inverse correlation between the dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) i.e. the precursors of eicosanoids, and the frequency of atherosclerotic diseases. Sinclair 13 first discovered the difference in morbidity of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction between populations not-consuming or consuming coconut oil which is rich in saturated fatty acids. Among the consuming population atherosclerosis was common. The rate-limiting step in PUFA biosynthesis is A-6 desaturation of a-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. Inhibition of A-6 desaturation was observed to correlate with high plasma cholesterol level 16 , high-intake of saturated fatty acids, aging 17 , male gender 18 , diabetes 19 , smoking 20 , very high alcohol intake 21 and coronary artery disease. On the other hand, intake of PUFAs may reduce total cholesterol level. The addition of co-3 PUFA, as found in fish oil, to the diet lowers the triglyceride level, an effect that is particularly...

Cardiovascular health

Known high-risk factors include smoking, diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia eating a diet high in saturated fats accelerates this process. Individuals with a predisposition and those with established CVD are increasingly given advice relating to their dietary habits, particularly relating to their fat and cholesterol intake and the risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD), which has been linked by both epidemiological studies and clinical trials.4 Further to this, the National Cholesterol Education Program in the USA, has shown that for every 10 reduction in cholesterol levels, CHD mortality is reduced by 13 and total mortality by 10 .2

Nucleoside Transporters Cnt Slc28A Ent Slc29A

Phillis and Wu, 1981), inhibit lipolysis in fat cells (Fain and Malbon, 1979), and act as an anti-inflammatory (Cronstein, 1994 Griffiths and Jarvis, 1996). In accordance with their overall physiological importance, the cellular transport of nucleosides is mediated by two distinct families of transporter proteins the high-affinity, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT SLC28) and the low affinity, equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT SLC29). These transporter families are distinguished not only by their structural features, but also by their different transport mechanisms. In short, the SLC28 family is sodium dependent and works through an active symport mechanism, while the SLC29 family functions by a facilitated diffusion mechanism. On the cellular level, it is thought that ENTs and CNTs asymmetrically localize between the apical and basolateral membranes to mediate the vectorial transepithelial flux of nucleosides (Lai et al., 2002 Kong et al., 2004). However, given the...

Functional Foods And Disease Prevention

Though it is a focus of a narrow audience to look for products focusing heart health, products with low saturated fats and cholesterol are admired by the majority of the consumers. In the same arena, o-3 fatty acids are still maintaining its recognition among consumers having identified its effects including protection against cardiovascular disease, various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, and enhanced cognitive health. In recent years, there was concentration toward products targeting the women population composed of active ingredients capable of fighting against bone-related complications, pregnancy, or menopause-related issues. Wider coverage in research is given for phytoestrogens and phy-tosterols available in this category of products among other

O Essential Fatty Acids

The fatty acids that are absolutely necessary to maintain the health of humans are generally polyunsaturated, even-numbered organic acids derived from plants or marine animals. For example, the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (18 2) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA,18 3) are respectively omega-6 and omega-3 18-carbon fatty acids, which occur naturally in olive oil as well as other oil-rich plants and seeds. Other PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20 5) and docasahexaenoic acid (DHA 22 6) are omega-3 In general, the designation (18 2) indicates that the fatty acid contains 18 carbon atoms and two double bonds, and the omega designation indicates the position of the double bond relative to the last carbon in the fatty acid. Thus, an 18 2 omega-3 fatty acid would have its last double bond terminating at the third carbon from the 18th carbon of the fatty acid (likewise omega-6 indicating the last double bond terminating at the sixth carbon from the end). Omega-9 fatty acids, such...

Diet and Nutrition

Associations between dietary factors and prostate cancer risk have been summarized elsewhere 10,13,17,55-57 . Most studies indicate that a high intake of fat, particularly total fat and saturated fat, is a risk factor for prostate cancer, but the strength of the associations is modest 57 and may be greater in African Americans than European Americans 58 . As much as 25 of prostate cancer in the US may be attributable to a high saturated fat intake 59 . However, Whittemore et al. 22 estimated that dietary fat intake may account for only 10-15 of the difference in prostate cancer occurrence between European Americans and African Americans or Asians. A mechanism of an enhancing effect of fat on prostate carcinogenesis is not understood, but several hypotheses, including hormonal mediation, have been discussed elsewhere 13, 17,57,60 . In addition, a high intake of protein and energy and a low intake of dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates have been found associated with increased risk...


Attack and Formation of trans-forms ring opening of unsaturated fatty acids, possible disturbance of membrane integrity, fatty acid signaling pathways Figure 4.7 The biological chemistry connecting thiols and fatty acids. Although the chemistry of thiol groups (such as the one found in cysteine), and the chemistry of fatty acids at first sight do not seem to have much in common, there are several points of interaction, especially with regard to unsaturated fatty acids, such arachidonic and linoleic acid. To begin with, nitrated unsaturated fatty acids may react with thiol(ate)s in a Michael addition reaction to form stable thioether hybrids. Such hybrids appear to play an important role in the biochemistry of nitrated fatty acids. Oxidized fatty acids, such as epoxides, also interact with thiols. The latter act as nucleophiles which open up the epoxide ring to yield a stable thioether hybrid. This chemistry is based on an initial oxidation event, in this case at the carbon-carbon...

Food Delivery

The human body contains trillions of cells that require a constant supply of nourishment, which is supplied by the food we eat. As it passes through the digestive system, food is broken down to simpler molecules usable by body cells. These final breakdown products of digestion enter the bloodstream and are carried to all the cells of the body. Water-soluble nutrients, such as sugars and salts, travel in the liquid blood and are absorbed by cells along the way. Other nutrients, however, are not very soluble in water, so special carriers are needed to deliver them to hungry cells. Serum albumin is such a carrier. It carries fatty acids, which are the building blocks of lipids, the molecules that form the membranes around and inside cells. Fatty acids are also important sources of energy, and the body maintains a storage of fatty acids in the form of fat. When the body needs energy or building materials, fat cells release fatty acids into the blood.

Meal Composition

Feeding rats chronically a high-fat diet increased their basal and stress-induced HPA activity 44 . Continuous high-fat feeding may act as a chronic stressor, not only enhancing baseline adrenocortical activity but also increasing neuroendocrine stress responses. Feeding rats with high-fat diet resulted in a lower anxiety level in an elevated plusmaze paradigm compared with feeding with high-CHO diet 45 . Feeding rats a diet with a high fat content reduces some of the behavioral and physiological responses to psychosocial and physiological stressors such as social defeat and administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharides 46 . Furthermore, the defeat-induced desen-sitization of central nervous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors, which normally occurs in animals on a diet with a high CHO content, is absent in animals on a high-fat diet 46 . Hypothalamic levels of 5-HT also decrease immediately after consumption of a fat meal 47 . A high-fat diet has suppressive effects on the...

Plasma Membrane

Caveolae are abundant in adipocytes, and their numbers increase during differentiation of fibroblasts into fat cells (Scherer et al. 1994). Consequently, caveolae are thought be important for insulin signalling. Insulin regulates both metabolic and mitogenic signalling pathways through the insulin receptor and its target, insulin receptor substrate (IRS) (Taniguchi et al. 2006). The mitogenic activity of insulin is mediated through the MAPK pathway (Taniguchi et al. 2006). Insulin receptors and IRS are both localised to caveolae (Gustavsson et al. 1999 Karlsson et al. 2004). Disruption of caveolae renders cells resistant to insulin, by preventing phosphorylation of IRS by the receptor kinase (Parpal et al. 2001), and abrogates activation of ERK1 2 (Karlsson et al. 2004), suggesting caveolae are important regulatory compartments for insulin-dependant signalling, including activation of the MAPK pathway.


Recently, novel lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-2-derived mediators generated from EPA and DHA (omega-3 fatty acid constituents of fish oils) were identified (Serhan et al. 2000). These bioactive di- and trihydroxy-containing lipid autocoids named resolvins (resolution phase interaction products) and docosatrienes displayed potent anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory actions (Hong et al. 2003 Serhan et al. 2000). In addition, aspirin therapy can lead to the creation of 17 (R) resolvins generated from DHA by COX-2. First identified in murine brain and human microglial cells treated with aspirin, COX-2 converted DHA to 17R-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17R-HDHA) (Serhan et al. 2002), which was transformed by human neutrophils (PMN) to di- and trihydroxy products one initiated via oxygenation at carbon 7 and the other at carbon 4. These compounds inhibited microglial cell cytokine expression and ameliorated experimental models of dermal inflammation and leukocyte accumulation in...

Chapter Overview

Lipidomics, which is the quantitative measurement of specifically identified, highly fat-soluble materials found naturally in the human body, is a subset of metabolomics, whose goal is to establish patterns of occurrence or change of intermediary metabolites that might help characterize conditions of health or disease. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids are just three of the many fat-soluble, naturally occurring targets or markers for such investigations. Other lipids of high interest include cholesterol, steroid hormones, triglycerides, sphingolipids, phos-pholipids, glycolipids, the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K, Q), and the myriad derivatives of these compounds. Essential fatty acids are those polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that must be included in the human diet to maintain health. Various omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are included in this group. The prostaglandins (PGA through PGJ) are one group of naturally occurring 20-carbon fatty acid derivatives...

Insulin Resistance

In skeletal muscle of humans with type 2 diabetes, the plasma membrane does not show a reduction and in fact may show a small increase in the amount of GLUT4 transporters. Yet the stimulation of glucose uptake by insulin is totally blunted. Zierath et al. (28) showed that the membranes of these muscles display a diminished gain in glucose transporters in response to an insulin clamp. A similar observation was also made in two animal models of diabetes (24,29). Defective GLUT4 translocation is also seen in fat cells from these animals (30) and in fat cells from humans with type 2 diabetes (20). As a result, several explanations have been put forward to account for this reduced translocation

COX2 and Resolution

About resolution by inducing leukocyte apoptosis (14, 15). Indeed, there is an increasing body of evidence detailing the differential effects of PGD2 metabolites on leukocyte apoptosis as well as the signalling pathways involved. In addition to the well-known eicosanoids of arachidonic acid metabolism, there is a new generation of lipid mediators showing promise as endogenous anti-inflamma-tories. Resolvins and docosatrienes are fatty acid metabolites of the COX LOX pathways, where the omega-3 fatty-acid constituents of fish oils docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaneoic acid are the substrates and not arachidonic acid. Thus, transcellular metabolism of arachidonic acid by LOX LOX interaction pathways gives rise to the lipoxin (LX) family of eicosanoid metabolites. LXs display selective actions on leukocytes that include inhibition of PMN chemotaxis, PMN adhesion to and transmigration through endothelial cells, as well as PMN-mediated increases in vascular permeability (16). In...

Prostate Cancer

The incidence of clinically significant prostate cancer is vastly different between North-Western Europe and South-East Asia. This difference can be partly ascribed to the aging of the population in industrialized countries and improved detection by PSA assays. A difference remains after adjustments for age and detection rate, and points to factors in the 'Western life-style' fostering prostate cancer. One candidate is a diet rich in saturated fat and relatively low in vitamins and micronutrients from fruit and vegetables.

Oils and Waxes

In addition to nut oils, vegetable oils are common components of topical formulations. Typically fatty oils, the primary components are triglycerides but vegetable oils also contain varying amounts of waxes, free fatty acids and other glycerides. Vegetable oils are typically used in ointments, primarily where their emollient actions are desirable. However, vegetable oils vary in composition and, importantly, are readily oxidised requiring careful storage conditions (cool, dark) and or the inclusion of anti-oxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisol. Different grades of vegetable oils can be obtained virgin oils are obtained from particular grades of raw materials by a mechanical process such as cold expression. Refined oils are obtained following expression or solvent extraction and a refining step such as alkali refining followed by bleaching and deodorisation. Hydrogenated oils take either the virgin or the refined oils and hydrogenate to convert unsaturated fatty acids to saturated...


A diet high in saturated fat and low in fiber and a low level of physical activity are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (26,27). Modifications of these factors are known to improve metabolic control and insulin sensitivity (56) but should be also expected to reduce oxidative stress. Experimental data suggest that exercise training can improve insulin resistance in parallel with a better antioxidant defense (45). One explanation

Omega3 Fatty Acids

The rationale for the use of omega-3 fatty acids (OFA) in the treatment of depression is based on converging evidence from diverse theoretical perspectives that seems to link OFAs and mood disorders. First, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that populations with low intake of dietary OFAs (e.g., fish oils) have a higher prevalence of depression than populations consuming large amounts (387). Second,

Cancer prevention

Asian countries where soy products are regularly consumed, such as Japan, China, Korea and Indonesia, have some of the lowest incidences of breast, prostate, and colon cancer. However, the incidence of such cancers is now rising in these countries due to changes in diet and lifestyle. Soy may be a contributory factor in cancer prevention, but a number of other dietary factors such as low saturated fat intake have also been linked to low cancer risk.5

Lpl Hl

The liver expresses a large complement of LDL receptors and removes 75 of all LDL from the plasma. Consequently, manipulation of hepatic LDL receptor expression is a most effective way to modulate plasma LDL-C levels. Thyroxine and estrogen enhance LDL receptor gene expression, which explains their LDL-C-lowering effects. The most effective dietary alteration (decreased consumption of saturated fat and cholesterol) and pharmacological treatment (statins) for hypercho-lesterolemia act by enhancing hepatic LDL receptor expression. LDL become atherogenic when they are modified by oxidation, a required step for LDL uptake by the scavenger receptors of macrophages. This process leads to foam-cell formation in arterial lesions. Despite the large body


J., Heber, D., Lill, M., Chap, L., and Glaspy, J. A. (1997). Dietary modulation of omega-3 omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios in patients with breast cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 89, 1123-1131. Gomez Candela, C., Bermejo Lopez, L. M., and Loria Kohen, V. (2011). Importance of a balanced omega 6 omega 3 ratio for the maintenance of health. Nutritional recommendations. Nutr. Hosp. 26, 323-329. Hulshof, K. F. A. M., van Erp-Baart, M. A., Anttolainen, M., Becker, W., Church, S. M., Couet, C., Hermann-Kunz, E., Kesteloot, H., Leth, T., Martins, I., Moreiras, O., Moschandreas, J., et al. (1999). Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids The TRANSFAIR study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 53, 143-157. Meyer, B. J., Mann, N. J., Lewis, J. L., Milligan, G. C., Sinclair, A. J., and Howe, P. R. C. (2003). Dietary intakes and food sources of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 38, 391-398. Rose, D. P. (1997)....

Vaginal mucosa

Vaginal muscles and connective tissue. The muscular layers are composed of longitudinal and circular smooth muscles. The two layers are connected by oblique decussating fasciculi.45 The connective tissue to the exterior of the muscular layer consists of vascular plexuses. The vaginal wall lacks hair follicles, fat cells, and other glands.122 Blood supply to the vagina is provided by the vaginal artery, a branch of the internal iliac artery. Vaginal veins drain blood from the vagina into the internal iliac veins. The internal iliac veins lead through the common iliac vein into the inferior vena cava, which takes blood to the heart to be redistributed to the whole body, thus bypassing hepatic first-pass metabolism.45


The polyphenolic flavonoids found in red wine and cocoa have received the most press attention. Red wine polyphenols are related to what is known as the French Paradox, the term given to the observation that French people remain slim and have low incidences of coronary heart disease despite eating a diet high in saturated fats. It has been suggested that the tendency of the French to consume higher quantities of red wine (containing the polyphenol resveratrol) than Americans is the reason for lower heart disease rates. Study of the average French diet finds that portion sizes are smaller, dietary fats mostly come from dairy and vegetable sources (very little from animal fat), fish is eaten more often, snacking between meals is limited, convenience foods are avoided, and sugar intake is lower than the average American diet. It is most likely these reasons, and not resveratrol, that account for the difference in cardiovascular disease rates between the two countries.

Soy Isoflavones

Soy-rich diets have been credited with the low incidence of breast, stomach, and prostate cancers in Asian populations compared with their much higher prevalence in the Western hemisphere, where soy consumption is low.139 There has been a multifold increase in research studies correlating consumption of soybean products to prevention of breast, colon, uterine, and prostate cancers. Soy was found to be one of the potent natural supplements with cancer-prevention properties.140 It is a host of two important isoflavones, namely genistein and daidzein. These substances are shown to have various anticarcinogenic properties, including prevention of oxidation, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, triggering of apoptosis, regulation of gene transcription, modulation of transcription factors, antiangiogenesis, and inhibition of DNA topoisomerage.141 Daidzein and genistein down-regulate the expression of prostate androgen-regulated transcript-1 (PART-1) gene, a possible prostate...


Astrocytes Cholesterol Metabolism

The Apoe gene is the best known bona fide risk factor for sporadic AD 28 . ApoE plays an important role in lipid transport throughout the body. It participates in plasma lipoprotein metabolism, cholesterol homeostasis and local lipid transport processes. ApoE is produced by various cell types, including liver, kidney, fat cells and macrophages. In the brain, it is primarily synthesized and secreted within HDL particles by astrocytes and mediates the efficient transport and recycling of cholesterol within the central nervous system 30-32 . In humans, three naturally occurring variants of Apoe, E2 (Cysn2 Cysi58), E3 (Cysm Arg ) and E4 (Argm Arg ) have been demonstrated to modify the risk or age of onset of LOAD. The apoE4 allele dose-dependently increases the risk while E2 allele reduces the risk. Apoe3 is the most common form, representing 78 of the population, whereas Apoe4 represents 15 and Apoe2 represents 7 . The increased risk attributable to Apoe4 is estimated to be about 20-30 ....

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