Homemade Organic Fertilizer Recipe
Boron occurs mainly in the environment through release into air, water, or soil after natural weathering processes. It can also be released from glass manufacturing, coal-burning power plants, copper smelters, and through its use in agricultural fertilizer and pesticides. It is estimated that releases from these sources are less than through natural weathering processes.
Boron-containing dusts in workplace air (Table 7-1) may, at times, be exceeded. Other industries include manufacture of fiberglass and other glass products, cleaning and laundry products, fertilizers, pesticides, and cosmetics (U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation 1991 Stokinger 1981). Median normal values of boron in human blood (9.76 mg 100 g) and urine samples from these workers (720 mg boron L) were reported (Stokinger 1981). Boron was not detected in a national survey of human adipose tissue (Stanley 1986). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) estimated that the number of workers potentially exposed to boron increased from 6,500 in the early 1970s (NOHS 1989) to 35,600 in the early 1980s (NOES) 1989). Neither the NOHS nor the NOES databases contain information on the frequency, concentration, or duration of exposures of workers to any of the chemicals listed therein. These surveys provide only estimates of the number of workers potentially exposed to...
Optimal plant growth and development depend on the appropriate supply of mineral nutrients, but, because of their sessile nature, plants must face wide variations in the environmental availability of these nutrients. In the case of copper, the needs generally vary from 5 to 20 g g dry tissue, whereas copper ionic concentrations found in soils range from 10-4 to 10-9 M, which largely surpass and underlie, respectively, plant requirements. The response of plant growth rate to metal concentration defines dose-response curves that can be divided in deficiency, adequate, and toxic zones. Deficiency, often caused by high-production agricultural systems, has been traditionally solved by the addition of chemical or organic fertilizers. Regarding toxicity, even higher copper levels than those indicated can be reached in some areas because of geological causes or human practices, including the excessive use of fertilizers or saline watering that result in soil pollution (1).
Genetic modification programs related to manipulating C and N budgets must take into account the crop environment. An example is shading by the upper canopy in later growth stages of annual crops which impacts on C acquisition at the individual plant level, perhaps more than at the whole crop level. For N acquisition, the timing of nitrogenous fertilizer application in relation to crop growth can be very relevant to the effectiveness of use of the applied N, with benefits sometimes accruing from split applications and the use of slow-release fertilizers.
Rubisco is a major sink for N supplied in the form of fertilizers. Manipulation of crops to improve NUE would have economic and environmental benefits, reducing pollution of water supply by nitrates. It has been suggested that improvement of cereal NUE is not a useful goal because the N is needed in the grain (Sinclair and Sheehey, 1999). However, if NUE is improved, N uptake could benefit from greater root growth and grain quality can be maintained by adding N fertilizer during grain development, when it is less polluting.
Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting element for crop plant growth, after factors like light and water. Nitrogen fertilizer had a major impact on agricultural crop productivity in the second half of the Twentieth Century (Smil, 1997) and is likely to be a big factor in the Twenty-First. Another impact of N fertilizers has been the contribution to nutrient run-off and pollution ofnatural ecosystems with excess N, which has upset the natural balance especially in coastal estuaries (Vitousek, 1997 National Research Council, 2000). For all these reasons, understanding the regulation of N metabolism in plants, especially for major crop plants like corn, wheat, barley, and rice where N fertilizer has had the greatest impact on productivity, is crucial for successfully feeding the growing world population of humans and the animals they consume, with decreased impact on the world's ecosystems. While much of the N fertilizer is applied to crops as ammonium, this reduced form ofN is converted to...
AE22 biopolymer can be a better stabilizing agent than an emulsifying agent, a characteristic of natural hydrocolloid polymers. These stabilizing and emulsification properties may find extensive applications in healthcare and food oil formulations. The AE22 may also be applied as a biosorbent for treatment of contaminated environments.12 Similarly emulsifiers from Halomonas sp. TG39 and TG67 showed good emulsification activity with different edible oils as well as with hexadecane and these emulsions remained stable for several months. Both the emulsifiers were also able to show stable emulsification under both neutral and acidic conditions. However, the emulsification capacity at acidic pH was found to be lower ( 45 ) than neutral pH. Heat treatment was also found to increase the emulsification activity of these bioemulsifiers. The emulsifying and stabilizing properties of these extracellular bioemulsifiers suggest their potential use for commercial purposes. These novel emulsifiers...
Slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) or, more often, a readily available chemical fertilizer with a high content of lime, is added to the solution. Lime will convert the water-insoluble morphine alkaloid into water-soluble calcium morphenate. (Other opium alkaloids do not react with lime to form water-soluble calcium salts, as does
Minerals and vitamins in fruit and vegetable crops is the consequence of higher crop yields and shortened growing time (slower-growing crops have more time to absorb nutrients from the soil and sun).1 Some studies of organic crops have shown increased nutrient values over conventional crops. A review of studies reported in The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine in 2001 found vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus values were significantly increased (along with decreased nitrates from fertilizers) when compared to conventionally grown crops. Yet, even this field of study yields conflicting results.2 The theory that organic crops must combat more stresses as they grow, due to less protection from pesticides, appears to increase their nutrient and antioxidant phenolic values.3 But these study results have yet to be verified over the long term.
Living things, whether animal or vegetable, fascinated me. Crotona Park, located close to our apartment, contained an area of several acres that was divided into 5 X 10 ft plots separated by footpaths. Interested youngsters could be assigned a plot in which a variety of vegetables could be grown. My two brothers and I spent every spare minute at the plots and managed to coax a surprising amount of Swiss chard, carrots, beans, and corn from our plots. The plots were overseen by two wonderful women, Mrs. Dayton and Mrs. Hickey they provided tools, seeds, fertilizer, and instructions. They knew the names and life histories of the plants, birds, and insects we encountered, and we learned a great deal from them.