Because of gastrointestinal enzymatic degradation of the protein molecules, the two most frequently used routes of administration are intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC). However, for high-molecular-weight proteins, intramuscular or SC routes of administration may not be even possible. For example, tissue plasminogen activators (molecular weight of 65,000) cannot readily cross the endothelial cell membrane; therefore, these have to be administered by IV bolus or infusion (3).

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