Conclusions

Protein delivery from the ocular surface to the retina and vitreous is the most appealing delivery approach. This is not effective yet, but this would be the optimal method of protein delivery in the clinical practice. The ease of topical drug administration would replace the intravitreal injections. Currently, intra-vitreal injections have gained wide clinical acceptance, and it is likely that only other more convenient or more long-acting modes of protein drug delivery can improve the current situation. Systemic delivery is not practical unless prolonged action and sufficient drug targeting to the posterior eye can be provided.

Several possibilities exist for protein delivery to the ocular targets. New delivery methods are needed, and they should be integrated to the biological constraints that are set by the pathophysiology of the eye.

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