Considerations For Intranasal Delivery

Intranasal administration can be employed either acutely or chronically and in the context of either local or systemic drug delivery. The sections below highlight such considerations for IN delivery, including discussion of nasal physiology, effect of nasal inflammation, and impact of dosing technique and dosage form on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Also relevant is the concept of tight junction (TJ) modulation (1). TJs are the cell-to-cell connections in epithelial and endothelial layers regulating transport across the natural boundaries that comprise nasal and other mucosal tissues. As part of normal physiological function, TJs selectively open and close in response to various stimuli, allowing the passage of large molecules or even cells across the TJ barrier. The physicochemical properties of the drug are also highly germane, for instance high-molecular-weight drugs typically exhibit low permeation across the nasal mucosa. In this case, judicious choice of TJ modulating excipients can be employed to improve PK and PD performance.

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