In Vivo Animal Models

While in vitro tissue models are highly valuable for HTS, it is also important to employ in vivo models of IN PK and PD. To this end, various animal species and dosing methodologies can be utilized, with varying complexity, cost, and relevance to human dosing (95). Table 1 describes various animal models explored and their nasal surface areas and nasal dose volumes compared with dosing humans.

It is important to note that various factors can affect IN absorption in animals compared with humans, such as nasal cavity anatomical differences, experimental design including whether to perform a surgical preparation, dosing

TABLE 1 Nasal Surface Area and Nasal Dose Volume Comparison Between Species

Species

Weight (kg)

Unilateral surface area (cm2)

Volume to be administered (mL)

Dosea (mL/kg)

Human

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