Systemic Delivery

IN administration provides an alternative route for the systemic delivery of drugs that are more conventionally delivered orally or (for poorly orally absorbed compounds such as peptides and proteins) by injection. Attributes of IN systemic delivery include no first-pass metabolism, a relatively large surface area for drug absorption, noninvasiveness to maximize patient comfort and compliance, rapid drug onset, and potential for alternate PK and PD effects. Typically, IN delivery provides for rapid onset of drug levels in the blood, with a relatively short time for drug absorption due to mucocilliary clearance from the nasal cavity. Further, detailed discussion of systemic drug delivery via the IN route is provided in the case examples below, and additional information can be found in various literature reviews (13-19).

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