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* Cited in text

9. GLOSSARY

Acute Exposure -- Exposure to a chemical for a duration of 14 days or less, as specified in the Toxicological Profiles.

Adsorption Coefficient (K°c) -- The ratio of the amount of a chemical adsorbed per unit weight of organic carbon in the soil or sediment to the concentration of the chemical in solution at equilibrium.

Adsorption Ratio (Kd) -- The amount of a chemical adsorbed by a sediment or soil (i.e., the solid phase) divided by the a mount of chemical in the solution phase, which is in equilibrium with the solid phase, at a fixed solid/solution ratio. It is generally expressed in micrograms of chemical sorbed per gram of soil or sediment.

Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) -- The quotient of the concentration of a chemical in aquatic organisms at a specific time or during a discrete time period of exposure divided by the concentration in the surrounding water at the same time or during the same period.

Cancer Effect Level (CEL) -- The lowest dose of chemical in a study, or group of studies, that produces significant increases in the incidence of cancer (or tumors) between the exposed population and its appropriate control.

Carcinogen -- A chemical capable of inducing cancer.

Ceiling Value -- A concentration of a substance that should not be exceeded, even instantaneously.

Chronic Exposure -- Exposure to a chemical for 365 days or more, as specified in the Toxicological Profiles

Developmental Toxicity -- The occurrence of adverse effects on the developing organism that may result from exposure to a chemical prior to conception (either parent), during prenatal development, or postnatally to the time of sexual maturation. Adverse development effects may be detected at any point in the life span of the organism.

Embryotoxicity and Fetotoxicity -- Any toxic effect on the conceptus as a result of prenatal exposure to a chemical; the distinguishing feature between the two terms is the stage of development during which the insult occurred. The terms, as used here, include malformations and variations, altered growth, and in utero death.

EPA Health Advisory -- An estimate of acceptable drinking water levels for a chemical substance based on health effects information. A health advisory is not a legally enforceable federal standard, but serves as technical guidance to assist federal, state, and local officials.

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) -- The maximum environmental concentration of a contaminant from which one could escape within 30 min without any escape-impairing symptoms or irreversible health effects.

Intermediate Exposure -- Exposure to a chemical for a duration of 15-364 days, as specified in the Toxicological Profiles.

Immunologic Toxicity -- The occurrence of adverse effects on the immune system that may result from exposure to environmental agents such as chemicals

In Vitro -- Isolated from the living organism and artificially maintained, as in a test tube.

In Vivo -- Occurring within the living organism.

Lethal Concentration(LO) (LCLO) -- The lowest concentration of a chemical in air which has been reported to have caused death in humans or animals.

Lethal Concentration^0) (LD50) -- A calculated concentration of a chemical in air to which exposure for a specific length of time is expected to cause death in 50% of a defined experimental animal population.

Lethal Dose(LO) (ldlo) -- The lowest dose of a chemical introduced by a route other than inhalation that is expected to have caused death in humans or animals.

Lethal Dose(50) (LD50) -- The dose of a chemical which has been calculated to cause death in 50% of a defined experimental animal population.

Lethal Time(50) (LT50) -- The calculated period of time within which a specific concentration of a chemical is expected to cause death in 50% of a defined experimental animal population.

Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (LOAEL) -- The lowest dose of chemical in a study, or group of studies, that produces statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and its appropriate control.

Malformations -- Permanent structural changes that may adversely affect survival, development, or function.

Minimal Risk Level -- An estimate of daily human exposure to a dose of a chemical that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse noncancerous effect over a specified duration of exposure.

Mutagen -- A substance that causes mutations. A mutation is a change in the genetic material in a body cell. Mutations can lead to birth defects, miscarriages, or cancer.

Neurotoxicity -- The occurrence of adverse effects on the nervous system following exposure to chemical.

No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) -- The dose of chemical at which there were no statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects seen between the exposed population and its appropriate control. Effects may be produced at this dose, but they are not considered to be adverse.

Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient (K°w) -- The equilibrium ratio of the concentrations of a chemical in n-octanol and water, in dilute solution.

Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) -- An allowable exposure level in workplace air averaged over an

8-hour shift.

qi -- The upper-bound estimate of the low-dose slope of the dose-response curve as determined by the multistage procedure. The q1 can be used to calculate an estimate of carcinogenic potency, the incremental excess cancer risk per unit of exposure (usually mg/L for water, mg/kg/day for food, and mg/m for air).

Reference Dose (RfD) -- An estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of the daily exposure of the human population to a potential hazard that is likely to be without risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. The RfD is operationally derived from the NOAEL (from animal and human studies) by a consistent application of uncertainty factors that reflect various types of data used to estimate RfDs and an additional modifying factor, which is based on a professional judgment of the entire database on the chemical. The RfDs are not applicable to nonthreshold effect such as cancer.

Reportable Quantity (RQ) -- The quantity of a hazardous substance that is considered reportable under CERCLA. Reportable quantities are (1) 1 pound or greater or (2) for selected substances, an amount established by regulation either under CERCLA or under Sect. 311 of the Clean Water Act. Quantities are measured over a 24-hour period.

Reproductive Toxicity -- The occurrence of adverse effects on the reproductive system that may result from exposure to a chemical. The toxicity may be directed to the reproductive organs and/or the related endocrine system. The manifestation of such toxicity may be noted as alterations in sexual behavior, fertility, pregnancy outcomes, or modifications in other functions that are dependent on the integrity of this system.

Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) -- The maximum concentration to which workers can be exposed for up to 15 min continually. No more than four excursions are allowed per day, and there must be at least 60 min between exposure periods. The daily TLV-TWA may not be exceeded.

Target Organ Toxicity -- This term covers a broad range of adverse effects on target organs or physiological systems (e.g., renal, cardiovascular) extending from those arising through a single limited exposure to those assumed over a lifetime of exposure to a chemical.

Teratogen -- A chemical that causes structural defects that affect the development of an organism.

Threshold Limit Value (TLV) -- A concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without adverse effect. The TLV may expressed as a TWA, as a STEL, or as a CL.

Time-Weighted Average (TWA) -- An allowable exposure concentration averaged over a normal 8-hour workday or 40-hour workweek.

Toxic Dose (TD50) -- A calculated dose of a chemical, introduced by a route other than inhalation, which is expected to cause a specific toxic effect in 50% of a defined experimental animal population.

Uncertainty Factor (UF) -- A factor used in operationally deriving the RfD from experimental data. UFs are intended to account for (1) the variation in sensitivity among the members of the human population, (2) the uncertainty in extrapolating animal data to the case of human, (3) the uncertainty in extrapolating from data obtained in a study that is of less than lifetime exposure, and (4) the uncertainty in using LOAEL data rather than NOAEL data. Usually each of these factors is set equal to 10.

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