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Potentiate morphine analgesia, and a cross-tolerance develops between nicotine and morphine (Zarrindast et al. 1996, 1999). Nicotine only potentiates morphine analgesia, and not that induced by -endorphin, a 51 agonist (DPDPE), or k agonist (U50,488H) (Suh et al. 1996). Nicotine analgesia alone seems to depend on endogenous opioid mechanisms (Zarrindast et al. 1997). Similar to tobacco, lobelia may also have analgesic effects. However, it depends on the mode of administration (Damaj et al....

Leukoedema Disease Cure On Homeopathi Medicine

Cognitive effects Animal studies have found some beneficial effects of arecoline on memory, varying with the task employed, dose, and degree of tolerance. Areca chewing in human subjects increases the speed of mental processing. Mixed results have been found in subjects with Alzheimer's disease. The cognitive effects of areca are discussed at greater length in chapter 5. Addiction and Dependence A dependency syndrome occurs in many who chew areca (Trivedy et al. 1999). This is not entirely...

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Alternative and complementary medicine have been enjoying a recent growth in popularity in the United States. People are increasingly likely to consult them in an attempt to treat their illnesses. While this may be a positive trend, there is also an enormous potential for harm, depending on what illness is being treated and the type of treatments being sought. Given the myriad of alternative and complementary treatments available, both consumers and practitioners of health care are hard pressed...