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Page 179 Table 5.9

Natural and semisynthetic ergot alkaloids (ergoloids)

Amine alkaloids and Congeners d-Lysergic acid d-Isolysergic acid d-Lysergic acid diethylamide Ergonovine (ergometrine) Methylergonovine Methysergide Lisuride Lisurol Lergotrile Metergoline

Amino acid alkaloids Ergomatine

Ergotine Ergostine Ergotoxine: Ergocristine Ergocornine o-Ergokryptine jß-Ergokryptine Bromocriptine

Source: Adapted from Peroutka 1996.

Hydergine is for treatment of dementia. It has been approved by the Food and Drug administration for treatment of ''idiopathic decline in mental capacity." Chemical Constituents

Two general classes of alkaloids are distinguished in ergot: amine alkaloids and amino acid alkaloids (table 5.9) (Peroutka 1996). While the amine alkaloids are selective for antagonist effects on serotonin receptors, the amino acid alkaloids are less selective and act upon other monoamine receptors. The constituents of interest for cognitive enhancement are predominantly the amine alkaloids.

The chemical constituents of interest for cognitive effects are the ergotoxine derivatives, otherwise referred to as ergoloid mesylates (Schneider and Olin 1994). Ergotoxine was isolated in 1906, but later discovered to be a mix of four alkaloids: ergocristine, ergocornine, o-ergokryptine,

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